Zero-valent iron particles for PCB degradation and an evaluation of their effects on bacteria, plants, and soil organisms
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Two types of nano-scale zero-valent iron (nZVI-B prepared by borohydride reduction and nZVI-T produced by thermal reduction of iron oxide nanoparticles in H2) and a micro-scale ZVI (mZVI) were compared for PCB degradation efficiency in water and soil. In addition, the ecotoxicity of nZVI-B and nZVI-T particles in treated water and soil was evaluated on bacteria, plants, earthworms, and ostracods. All types of nZVI and mZVI were highly efficient in degradation of PCBs in water, but had little degradation effect on PCBs in soil. Although nZVI-B had a significant negative impact on the organisms tested, treatment with nZVI-T showed no negative effect, probably due to surface passivation through controlled oxidation of the nanoparticles.
KeywordsPolychlorinated biphenyls Zero-valent iron nanoparticles and microparticles Remediation Ecotoxicity Bacteria Plants Earthworms Ostracods
This research was funded by European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration under Grant Agreement No. 309517 (NanoRem), by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic (TACR) under the project “Competence Centers” (Nanobiowat TE01020218), by Ministry of Industry and Trade (Project No. FR-TI3/622) and by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (Project No. LO1305). The authors also acknowledge the assistance provided by the Research Infrastructure NanoEnviCz, supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under project No. LM2015073. The authors would like to thank Klára Šafářová for electron microscopy of the samples, Jiří Pechoušek for surface area measurement, and Eleni Petala and Ivo Medřík for technical assistance.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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