Zero-valent iron particles for PCB degradation and an evaluation of their effects on bacteria, plants, and soil organisms
- 436 Downloads
Two types of nano-scale zero-valent iron (nZVI-B prepared by borohydride reduction and nZVI-T produced by thermal reduction of iron oxide nanoparticles in H2) and a micro-scale ZVI (mZVI) were compared for PCB degradation efficiency in water and soil. In addition, the ecotoxicity of nZVI-B and nZVI-T particles in treated water and soil was evaluated on bacteria, plants, earthworms, and ostracods. All types of nZVI and mZVI were highly efficient in degradation of PCBs in water, but had little degradation effect on PCBs in soil. Although nZVI-B had a significant negative impact on the organisms tested, treatment with nZVI-T showed no negative effect, probably due to surface passivation through controlled oxidation of the nanoparticles.
KeywordsPolychlorinated biphenyls Zero-valent iron nanoparticles and microparticles Remediation Ecotoxicity Bacteria Plants Earthworms Ostracods
This research was funded by European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration under Grant Agreement No. 309517 (NanoRem), by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic (TACR) under the project “Competence Centers” (Nanobiowat TE01020218), by Ministry of Industry and Trade (Project No. FR-TI3/622) and by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (Project No. LO1305). The authors also acknowledge the assistance provided by the Research Infrastructure NanoEnviCz, supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under project No. LM2015073. The authors would like to thank Klára Šafářová for electron microscopy of the samples, Jiří Pechoušek for surface area measurement, and Eleni Petala and Ivo Medřík for technical assistance.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Kocur CMD, Lomheim L, Molenda O, Weber KP, Austrins LM, Sleep BE, Boparai HK, Edwards EA, O'Carroll DM (2016) Long term field study of microbial community and dechlorinating activity following Carboxymethyl cellulose-stabilized nanoscale zero valent iron injection. Environ Sci Technol 50:7658–7670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lovley DR, Phillips EJ (1986) Availability of ferric iron for microbial reduction in bottom sediments of the freshwater tidal Potomac River. Appl Environ Microb 52:751–757Google Scholar
- Němeček J, Lhotský O, Cajthaml T (2014) Nanoscale zero-valent iron application for in situ reduction of hexavalent chromium and its effects on indigenous microorganism populations. Sci Total Environ 485:739–747Google Scholar
- OECD (1984) Guideline for the testing of chemicals: earthworm acute toxicity tests 207 France, p. 9Google Scholar
- OECD (2006) OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals. Proposal for updating guideline 208, terrestrial plant test: 208: seedling emergence and seedling growth testGoogle Scholar
- Patent No. EP2164656 (2013) Zbořil R, Schneeweiss O, Filip J, Mašláň M: The method of synthesis of the iron nanopowder with the protective oxidic coat from natural and synthetic nanopowdered iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, granted 24.7.2013Google Scholar
- Robertson LW, Hansen LG (2015) PCBs: recent advances in environmental toxicology and health effects. University Press of Kentucky, KentuckyGoogle Scholar
- Zhang H, Zhang B, Liu B (2016) Integrated Nanozero valent iron and biosurfactant-aided Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Soil. Appl Environ Soil Sci. doi: 10.1155/2016/5390808