Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 24, pp 19807–19815 | Cite as

Emission characteristics of toxic pollutants from an updraft fixed bed gasifier for disposing rural domestic solid waste

  • Ming Lei
  • Jing HaiEmail author
  • Jiang ChengEmail author
  • Li Gui
  • Jiawei Lu
  • Ming-Zhong Ren
  • Feng Zhu
  • Zong-Hui Yang
Research Article

Abstract

Gasification has gained advantage as an effective way to dispose domestic solid waste in mountainous rural of China. However, its toxic emissions such as PCDD/Fs and heavy metals, as well as their potential environmental risks, were not well studied in engineering application. In this study, an updraft fixed bed gasifier was investigated by field sampling analysis. Results showed that low toxic emissions (dust, SO2, NOx, HCl, CO, H2S, NH3, PCDD/Fs and heavy metals) in the flue gas were achieved when the rural solid waste was used as feedstock. The mass distribution of heavy metals showed that 94.00% of Pb, 80.45% of Cu, 78.00% of Cd, 77.31% of Cr, and 76.25% of As were remained in residual, whereas 86.58% of Hg was found in flue gas. The content of PCDD/Fs in the flue gas was 0.103 ngI-TEQ·Nm−3, and the total emission factor of PCDD/Fs from the gasifier was 50.04 μgI-TEQ·t-waste−1, among which only 0.04 μgI-TEQ·t-waste−1 was found in the flue gas. The total output of PCDD/Fs was1.89 times as high as input, indicting the updraft fixed bed gasifier increased emission of PCDD/Fs during the treatment domestic solid waste. In addition, the distribution characteristics of PCDD/Fs congeners reflected that PCDD/Fs was mainly generated in the gasification process rather than the stage of flue gas cleaning, suggesting the importance to effectively control the generation of PCDD/Fs within the gasifier chamber in order to obtain a low PCDD/Fs emission level.

Keywords

Gasification Domestic solid waste PCDD/Fs Heavy metals Emission 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research was supported by the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (No. 2013B090600134), the Public Welfare Project of Ministry of Environmental Protection of China (No. 2011467001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51608223), and the Fund for Basic Scientific Research Business of Central Institutes of Environmental Protection (NO. PM-zx 703-201602-050). We greatly appreciate the South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection for the sampling and analytical work.

References

  1. Abad E, Adrados MA, Caixach J, Fabrellas B, Rivera J (2000) Dioxin mass balance in a municipal waste incinerator. Chemosphere 40:1143–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arena U (2012) Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review. Waste Manag 32:625–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bastian L, Yano J, Hirai Y, Sakai SI (2013) Behavior of PCDD/Fs during open burning of municipal solid waste in open dumping sites. J Mater Cycles Waste 15:229–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen T, Yan JH, Lu SY, Li XD, Gu YL, Dai HF, Ni MJ, Cen KF (2008) Characteristic of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fly ash from incinerators in china. J Hazard Mater 150:510–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen D, Yin L, Wang H, He P (2014) Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review. Waste Manag 34:2466–2486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dai Q, Jiang X, Wang F, Chi Y, Yan J (2013) PCDD/Fs in wet sewage sludge pyrolysis using conventional and microwave heating. J Anal Appl Pyrol 104:280–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dong J, Chi Y, Tang Y, Ni M, Nzihou A, Weiss-Hortala E, Huang Q (2015) Partitioning of heavy metals in municipal solid waste pyrolysis, gasification, and incineration. Energ Fuel 29:7516–7525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dong J, Chi Y, Tang Y, Ni M, Nzihou A, Weisshortala E, Huang Q (2016) Effect of operating parameters and moisture content on municipal solid waste pyrolysis and gasification. Energ Fuel 30:3994–4001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fu J, Li X, Chen T, Lin X, Buekens A, Lu S, Yan J, Cen K (2015) PCDD/Fs’ suppression by sulfur—amine/ammonium compounds. Chemosphere 123:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gao HC, Yu-Wen NI, Zhang HJ, Zhang Q, Fan SU, Zhao L, Zhang N, Zhang XP, Chen JP (2009) PCDD/F emission characteristics in different waste incineration facilities and evaluation of 23478-PeCDF as I-TEQ indicator of PCDD/F in flue gases. Environ Sci 30:1545–1550Google Scholar
  11. Guan Y, Zhang Y, Zhao D, Huang X, Li H (2015) Rural domestic waste management in Zhejiang Province, China: characteristics, current practices, and an improved strategy. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 65:721–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Han Z, Liu D, Lei Y, Wu J, Li S (2015) Characteristics and management of domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China. Waste Manage Res 33:39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Helena R, Agnieszka C, Adéla H, Dagmar J, Ond Ej Z (2015) The effect of moisture on the release and enrichment of heavy metals during pyrolysis of municipal solid waste. Waste Manage Res 33:267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jiang Z (2014) 54 small-scale thermal treatment furnaces for disposing rural solid waste had built in Tengchong city, Yunnan province, in China. Environmental health and Technology News. http://www.cn-hw.net/html/china/201401/44064.html Google Scholar
  15. Kawamoto K, Miyata H (2014) Dioxin formation and control in a gasification–melting plant. Environ Sci Pollut R 22:14621–14628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Labaki M, Jeguirim M (2017) Thermochemical conversion of waste tyres—a review. Environ Sci Pollut R 24:9962–9992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu H, Kong S, Liu Y, Zeng H (2012) Pollution control technologies of dioxins in municipal solid waste incinerator. Procedia Environ Sci 16:661–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mahinpey N, Gomez A (2016) Review of gasification fundamentals and new findings: reactors, feedstock, and kinetic studies. Chem Eng Sci 148:14–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mckay G (2002) Dioxin characterisation, formation and minimisation during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration: review. Chem Eng J 86:343–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Meng X, de Jong W, Pal R, Verkooijen AHM (2010a) In bed and downstream hot gas desulphurization during solid fuel gasification: a review. Fuel Process Technol 91:964–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Meng A, Li Q, Jia J, Zhang Y (2010b) Investigation of heavy metal partitioning influenced by flue gas moisture and chlorine content during waste incineration. J Environ Sci-China 22:760–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Meng-Xia X, Jian-Hua Y, Sheng-Yong L, Xiao-Dong L, Tong C, Ming-Jiang N, Hui-Fen D, Ke-Fa C (2008) Source identification of Pcdd/Fs in agricultural soils near to a Chinese Mswi plant through isomer-specific data analysis. Chemosphere 71:1144–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mohr K, Nonn C, Jager J (1997) Behaviour of PCDD/F under pyrolysis conditions. Chemosphere 34:1053–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mondal P, Dang GS, Garg MO (2011) Syngas production through gasification and cleanup for downstream applications—recent developments. Fuel Process Technol 92:1395–1410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nzihou A, Stanmore B (2013) The fate of heavy metals during combustion and gasification of contaminated biomass—a brief review. J Hazard Mater 256:56–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Onwudili JA, Williams PT (2008) Hydrothermal gasification and oxidation as effective flameless conversion technologies for organic wastes. J Energy Inst 81:102–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pereira EG, Da Silva JN, de Oliveira JL, Machado CS (2012) Sustainable energy: a review of gasification technologies. Renew Sust Energ Rev 16:4753–4762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rosemann R, Lorenz W, Bahadir M, Hopf H (1998) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, benzenes and biphenyls—pollutants in products of a waste pyrolysis plant. Fresenius Environ Bull 7:289–294Google Scholar
  29. Shone CM, Jothi TJ (2016) Preparation of gasification feedstock from leafy biomass. Environ Sci Pollut R 23:9364–9372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang T, Chen T, Lin X, Zhan M, Li X (2016) Emission and distribution of PCDD/Fs, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, and PAHs from stack gas of a fluidized bed and a stoker waste incinerator in China. Environ Sci Pollut R 24:5607–5618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Weber R, Sakurai T (2001) Formation characteristics of PCDD and PCDF during pyrolysis processes. Chemosphere 45:1111–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wilk V, Hofbauer H (2013) Conversion of fuel nitrogen in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier. Fuel 106:793–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Williams PT (2005) Dioxins and furans from the incineration of municipal solid waste: an overview. J Energy Inst 78:38–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Williams PT (2013) Pyrolysis of waste tyres: a review. Waste Manag 33:1714–1728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wilson B, Wilson BW, Williams N, Liss B (2013) A Comparative Assessment of Commercial Technologies for Conversion of Solid Waste to Energy http://www.researchgate.net/publication/280080635_A_Comparative_Assessment_of_Commercial_Technologies_for_Conversion_of_Solid_Waste_to_Energy
  36. Yan M, Li X, Chen T, Lu S, Yan J (2010) Effect of temperature and oxygen on the formation of chlorobenzene as the indicator of PCDD/Fs. J Environ Sci-China 22:1624–1637Google Scholar
  37. Yang X (2014) 100 pyrolysis-gasification furnace disposing rural domesitic waste will be built in Baoshan City, Yunnan provice. In China, Baoshan News http://www.baoshan.cn/561/2014/06/06/61@71770.htm Google Scholar
  38. Yang J, Lin S, Lin T, Wu Y, Wang L, Chang-Chien G (2015) Emissions of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers from a municipal solid waste incinerator during the start-up operation. J Hazard Mater 299:206–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yu J, Sun L,Xiang J,Hu S, Su S, Qiu J (2012) Vaporization of heavy metals during thermal treatment of model solid waste in a fluidized bed incinerator. Chemosphere 86(11):1122–1126Google Scholar
  40. Yu J, Sun L, Wang B, Qiao Y, Xiang J, Hu S, Yao H (2016) Study on the behavior of heavy metals during thermal treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) components. Environ Sci Pollut R 23:253–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zeng C, Niu D, Li H, Zhou T, Zhao Y (2016) Public perceptions and economic values of source-separated collection of rural solid waste: a pilot study in China. Resour Conserv Recy 107:166–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhang HJ, Yu-Wen NI, Zhang XP, Zhang Q, Zhao L, Zhang N, Chen JP (2008) PCDD/F formation and its mass balance in a MSW incineration system. Environ Sci 29:1133–1137Google Scholar
  43. Zhang G, Hai J, Cheng J (2012) Characterization and mass balance of dioxin from a large-scale municipal solid waste incinerator in China. Waste Manag 32:1156–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang G, Hai J, Cheng J, Cai Z, Ren M, Zhang S, Zhang J (2013a) Evaluation of PCDD/Fs and metals emission from a circulating fluidized bed incinerator co-combusting sewage sludge with coal. J Environ Sci-China 25:231–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang G, Hai J, Ren M, Zhang S, Cheng J, Yang Z (2013b) Emission, mass balance, and distribution characteristics of PCDD/Fs and heavy metals during Cocombustion of sewage sludge and coal in power plants. Environ Sci Technol 47:2123–2130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang Y, Zhang D, Gao J, Zhan J, Liu C (2014) New understanding of the formation of PCDD/Fs from chlorophenol precursors: a mechanistic and kinetic study. J Phys Chem A 118:449–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringSouth China University of TechnologyGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.South China Institute of Environmental SciencesMinistry of Environmental Protection (MEP)GuangzhouChina
  3. 3.Yunnan Institute of Environmental ScienceKunmingChina

Personalised recommendations