Toxic effects of continuous low dose application of the antifouling biocide chlorine on marine benthic organisms were monitored using transplanted green mussels (Perna viridis) and a suite of biomarkers. Caged mussels were deployed in chlorinated and non-chlorinated sections of the cooling system of an operating electric power plant. Biomarkers indicative of general stress, oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and catalase), and DNA integrity, along with expression of stress proteins, were studied to assess the effects. Deterioration in condition index with corresponding increase in DNA strand breaks was indicative of chlorine stress. Superoxide dismutase enzyme did not show any particular trend, but catalase activity was high during the initial days of exposure at the chlorinated site; later, it became almost equal to that at the control site. Similarly, expressions of stress proteins (HSP60, HSP70, HSP22, GSTS1, and CYP4) showed bell-shaped pattern during the period of study. Positive correlation among the endpoints indicated the utility of the multimarker approach to monitor the effects of continuous low dose chlorination on mussels.
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The authors thank the authorities of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam, for providing the facilities and logistic support. The study was carried out as part of a collaborative project between ESSO-NIOT, Chennai, and BARC, Kalpakkam. The project was funded by ESSO-NIOT. The staff and students of BBPS are thanked for their assistance in field sampling. The authors thank the two unknown reviewers for their comments for improving the manuscript.
The study was carried out using the funds provided by ESSO-NIOT.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
It is declared that the study involved no human participants.
• Effects of chlorine on Perna viridis are analyzed using multiple biomarkers.
• Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and expression of stress-related proteins suggest protective, followed by adaptive, response.
• The study is useful for devising a monitoring strategy for areas that receive chlorinated effluents.
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Chavan, P., Kumar, R., Joshi, H. et al. Multimarker study of the effects of antifouling biocide on benthic organisms: results using Perna viridis as candidate species. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 20407–20418 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9607-z
- Perna viridis
- Oxidative stress
- Condition index
- DNA integrity
- Antioxidant enzymes
- Stress proteins