Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 21, pp 20407–20418 | Cite as

Multimarker study of the effects of antifouling biocide on benthic organisms: results using Perna viridis as candidate species

  • Pooja Chavan
  • Rajesh Kumar
  • Hiren Joshi
  • Ramalingam Kirubagaran
  • Vayalam P. VenugopalanEmail author
Water: From Pollution to Purification


Toxic effects of continuous low dose application of the antifouling biocide chlorine on marine benthic organisms were monitored using transplanted green mussels (Perna viridis) and a suite of biomarkers. Caged mussels were deployed in chlorinated and non-chlorinated sections of the cooling system of an operating electric power plant. Biomarkers indicative of general stress, oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and catalase), and DNA integrity, along with expression of stress proteins, were studied to assess the effects. Deterioration in condition index with corresponding increase in DNA strand breaks was indicative of chlorine stress. Superoxide dismutase enzyme did not show any particular trend, but catalase activity was high during the initial days of exposure at the chlorinated site; later, it became almost equal to that at the control site. Similarly, expressions of stress proteins (HSP60, HSP70, HSP22, GSTS1, and CYP4) showed bell-shaped pattern during the period of study. Positive correlation among the endpoints indicated the utility of the multimarker approach to monitor the effects of continuous low dose chlorination on mussels.


Perna viridis Chlorine Oxidative stress Biomarkers Condition index DNA integrity Antioxidant enzymes Stress proteins 



The authors thank the authorities of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam, for providing the facilities and logistic support. The study was carried out as part of a collaborative project between ESSO-NIOT, Chennai, and BARC, Kalpakkam. The project was funded by ESSO-NIOT. The staff and students of BBPS are thanked for their assistance in field sampling. The authors thank the two unknown reviewers for their comments for improving the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards


The study was carried out using the funds provided by ESSO-NIOT.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

It is declared that the study involved no human participants.

Supplementary material

11356_2017_9607_MOESM1_ESM.docx (272 kb)
Fig. S1 (DOCX 272 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pooja Chavan
    • 1
  • Rajesh Kumar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hiren Joshi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ramalingam Kirubagaran
    • 3
  • Vayalam P. Venugopalan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Biofouling and Biofilm Processes Section, Water and Steam Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research CentreKalpakkamIndia
  2. 2.Homi Bhabha National InstituteMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Marine BiotechnologyESSO-National Institute of Ocean TechnologyChennaiIndia

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