Fullerol C60(OH)24 nanoparticles and mycotoxigenic fungi: a preliminary investigation into modulation of mycotoxin production
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Increased use of fullerols in various fields and expected increase of their environmental spread impose the necessity for testing fullerol nanoparticles (FNP) effects on microbiota. There is little information available on the interaction of mycotoxigenic fungi and FNP, despite FNP having a great potential of modifying mycotoxin production. Namely, FNP exhibit both ROS-quenching and ROS-producing properties, while oxidative stress stimulates mycotoxin synthesis in the fungi. In order to shed some light on the extent of interaction between FNP and mycotoxigenic fungi, the effects of fullerol C60(OH)24 nanoparticles (10, 100, 1000 ng/mL) on mycelial growth, aflatoxin production and oxidative stress modulation in an aflatoxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus (NRRL 3251) during 168 h of incubation in a liquid culture medium were examined. FNP slightly reduced mycelial biomass weight, but significantly decreased aflatoxin concentration in media. Lipid peroxide content, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities suggest that FNP treatments hormetically reduced oxidative stress within fungal cells in turn suppressing aflatoxin production. These findings contribute to the assessment of environmental risk and application potential of fullerols.
KeywordsFullerol C60(OH)24 Nanoparticles Aspergillus flavus Mycelial growth Aflatoxin production Oxidative stress
The authors would like to thank prof. dr. sc. Mirta Benšić from the Department of Mathematics, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, for the advice in the selection of proper statistical methods. This work was funded by Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek (young scientist grant) and partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Grant No. III 45005).
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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