Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 10328–10339 | Cite as

Enhanced larvicidal, antibacterial, and photocatalytic efficacy of TiO2 nanohybrids green synthesized using the aqueous leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus

  • Keerthika Thandapani
  • Manikandan Kathiravan
  • Elangovan Namasivayam
  • Indira Arulselvi Padiksan
  • Geetha Natesan
  • Manish Tiwari
  • Benelli Giovanni
  • Venkatachalam Perumal
Plant-borne compounds and nanoparticles: challenges for medicine, parasitology and entomology


Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are emerging as a biocompatible nanomaterial with multipurpose bioactivities. In this study, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were effectively synthesized using the aqueous leaf extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus prepared by microwave irradiation. TiO2 nanoparticles were fabricated by treating the P. hysterophorus leaf extracts with the TiO4 solution. Biologically active compounds such as alcohols, phenols, alkanes, and fluoroalkanes were involved in bioreduction of TiO4 into TiO2. The formation of green-engineered TiO2 nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. UV-vis spectroscopy analysis showed maximum absorbance at 420 nm due to surface plasmon resonance of synthesized TiO2 NPs. FTIR spectrum of the engineered TiO2 NPs showed the presence of bioactive compounds in the leaf extract, which acted as capping and reducing agents. FESEM exhibited an average size of 20–50 nm and a spherical shape of TiO2 NPs. EDX analysis indicated the presence of TiO2 NPs by observing the peaks of titanium ions. XRD results pointed out the crystalline nature of engineered TiO2 NPs. The larvicidal activity of TiO2 NPs was studied on fourth instar larvae of dengue, Zika virus, and filariasis mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Antimicrobial efficacy of TiO2 NPs was assessed on clinically isolated pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Besides, we found that TiO2 NPs are able to quickly degrade the industrially harmful pigments methylene blue, methyl orange, crystal violet, and alizarin red dyes under sunlight illumination. Overall, this novel, simple, and eco-friendly approach can be of interest for the control of vector-borne diseases, as well as to formulate new bactericidal agents and to efficiently degrade dye solutions in the polluted areas.


Dengue Malaria Filariasis Larvicidal activity Microbial pathogens Photocatalytic activity 



The authors wish to thank Periyar University for providing necessary facility to this project.


  1. Akurati KK, Vital A, Fortunato G, Hany R, Nueesch F, Graule T (2007) Flame synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles with high photocatalytic activity. Solid State Sci 9:247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alaton IA, Balcioglu IA (2001) Photochemical and heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of waste vinylsulphone dyes: a case study with hydrolysed reactive black 5. J Photo Chem Photo Biol 141:247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Begum NA, Mondal S, Basu S, Laskar RA, Mandal D (2009) Biogenic synthesis of Au and Ag nanoparticles using aqueous solutions of black tea leaf extracts. Colloids Surf B 71:113–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behnajady MA, Eskandarloo H, Modirshahla N, Shokri M (2011) Sol-gel low-temperature synthesis of stable anatase-type TiO2 nanoparticles under different conditions and its photocatalytic activity. Photochem Photobiol 87:1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benelli G (2016) Green synthesized nanoparticles in the fight against mosquitoborne diseases and cancer—a brief review. Enzym Microb Technol 95:58–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benelli G, Murugan K, Panneerselvam C, Madhiyazhagan P, Conti B, Nicoletti M (2015) Old ingredients for a new recipe? Neem cake, a low-cost botanical by-product in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases. Parasitol Res 114:391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhuvaneswari T, Thiyagarajan M, Geetha N, Venkatachalam P (2014) Bioactive compound loaded stable silver nanoparticles synthesis from microwave irradiated aqueous extracellular leaf extracts of Naringi crenulata and its wound healing activity in experimental rat model. Acta Trop 135:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chong MN, Jin B, Chow CWK, Saint C (2010) Recent developments in photocatalytic water treatment technology: a review. Water Res 44:2997–3027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Daneshvar N, Salari D, Khataee AR (2003) Photocatalytic degradation of azo dye acid red 14 in water: investigation of the effect of operational parameters. J Photo Chem Photo Biol A Chem 157:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dinesh D, Murugan K, Madhiyazhagan P, Panneerselvam C, Nicoletti M, Jiang W, Benelli G, Chandramohan B, Suresh U (2015) Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi? Parasitol Res 114:1519–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duran N, Marcato PD, Alves OL, De Souza GIH, Esposito E (2005) Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains. J Nanobiotechnol 3:8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Faisal M, Tariq MA, Muneer M (2007) Photocatalysed degradation of two selected dyes in UV-irradiated aqueous suspension of titania. Dyes Pigments 72:233–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Finney DJ (1971) Probit analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 333Google Scholar
  14. Frank S, Brand AJ (1997) Heterogenous photocatalytic oxidation of cyanide ion in aqueous solution at TiO2 powder. J Am Chem Soc 99:303–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Garcia MA (2012) Surface plasmons in metallic nanoparticles: fundamentals and applications. J Phys D Appl Phys 44:28Google Scholar
  16. Hameed BH, Ahmad L, Latiff KN (2007) Adsorption of basic dye (methylene blue) onto activated carbon prepared from rattan sawdust. Dyes Pigments 75:143–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jeeva K, Thiyagarajan M, Elangovan V, Geetha N, Venkatachalam P (2014) Caesalpinia coriaria leaf extracts mediated biosynthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity against clinically isolated pathogens. Indus Crop Prod 52:714–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jinu U, Jayalakshmi N, Sujima Anbu A, Mahendran D, Sahi S, Venkatachalam P (2017a) Biofabrication of cubic phase silver nanoparticles loaded with phytochemicals from Solanum nigrum leaf extracts for potential antibacterial, antibiofilm and antioxidant activities against MDR human pathogens. J Clust Sci 28:489–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jinu U, Gomathi M, Saiqa I, Geetha N, Benelli G, Venkatachalam P (2017b) Green engineered biomolecule-capped silver and copper nanohybrids using Prosopis cineraria leaf extract: enhanced antibacterial activity against microbial pathogens of public health relevance and cytotoxicity on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Microb Pathog 105:86–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kalaiarasi K, Prasannaraj G, Sahi SV, Venkatachalam P (2015) Phytofabrication of biomolecules coated metallic silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of in vitro raised bamboo species and its anticancer activity against human PC3 cell lines. Turk J Biol 39:223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kannan RRR, Stirk WA, Van staden J (2013) Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the seaweed Codium capitatum P.C.Silva (Chlorophyceae). South Afr J Bot 86:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kayalvizhi T, Ravikumar S, Venkatachalam P (2016) Green synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles using Curculigo orchioides rhizome extracts and evaluation of its antibacterial, larvicidal, and anticancer activity. J Environ Eng 142:C4016002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Krishna V, Noguchi N, Koopman B, Moudgil B (2006) Enhancement of titanium dioxide photocatalysis by water-soluble fullerenes. J Colloid Interface Sci 304:166–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumar K, Chabra M, Katyal R, Patnaik PK, Kukreti H, Rai A, Saxena VK, Mittal V, Lal S (2008) Investigation of an outbreak of Chickungunya in Malegaon municipal areas of Nashik District, Maharastra (India) and its control. J Vector Born Dis 45:157–163Google Scholar
  25. Kumar P, Govindaraju M, Senthamilselvi S, Premkumar K (2013) Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye using silver (Ag) nanoparticles synthesized from Ulva lactuca. Colloid Surf B 103:658–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kwan JL, Kluh S, Madon MB, Reisen WK (2010) West Nile virus emergence and persistence in Los Angeles, California, 2003–2008. Am J Trop Med Hy 83:400–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee KH, Song SW (2011) One-step hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous anatase TiO2 microsphere and interfacial control for enhanced lithium storage performance. ACS Appl Mater Interf 3:3697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li X, Chen F, Lian C, Zheng S, Hu Q, Duo S, Li W, Hu C (2016) Au/TiO2/graphene composite with enhanced photocatalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation. J Clust Sci 27:1877–1892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Macwan DP, Dave PN, Chaturvedi S (2011) A review on nano-TiO2 sol–gel type syntheses and its applications. J Mater Sci 46:3669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maishi AI, Ali PKS, Chaghtai SA, Khan G (1998) A proving of Parthenium hysterophorus L. Brit Homoeopath J 87:17–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Marimuthu S, Rahuman AA, Jayaseelan C, Kirthi AV, Santhoshkumar T, Velayutham K, Bagavan A, Kamaraj C, Elango G, Iyappan M, Siva C, Karthik L, Rao KVB (2013) Acaricidal activity of synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Calotropis gigantean against Rhipicephalus microplus and Haemaphysalis bispinosa. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 6:682–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mohamed RM, Mkhalid IA, Baeissa ES, AL-Rayyani MA (2012) Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by Fe/ZnO/SiO2 nanoparticles under visible light. J Nanotechnol. doi: 10.1155/2012/329082
  33. Mohanpuria P, Rana NK, Yadav SK (2008) Biosynthesis of nanoparticles: technological concepts and future applications. J Nanopart Res 10:507–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Murugan K, Mahesh Kumar P, Kovendan K, Amerasan D, Subrmaniam J, Shiou HJ (2012) Larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity of Citrus sinensis orange peel extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 111:1757–1769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Noginov MA, ZhuG BM, Adegoke J, Small C, Ritzo BA, Drachev VP, Shalaev VM (2006) The effect of gain and absorption on surface plasmon in metal nanoparticles. Appl Phys B Lasers Opt 86:458–460Google Scholar
  36. Patel S (2011) Harmful and beneficial aspects of Parthenium hysterophorus: an update. 3. Biotech 1:1–9Google Scholar
  37. Quadros ME, Marr LC (2011) Silver nanoparticles and total aerosols emitted by nanotechnology-related consumer spray products. Environ Sci Technol 45:10713–10719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rajasekaran A, Duraikannan G (2012) Larvicidal activity of plant extracts on Aedes aegypti L. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 31:1578–1582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Roni M, Murugan K, Panneerselvam C, Subramaniam J, Hwang JS (2013) Evaluation of leaf aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles using Nerium oleander against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 112:981–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sakthivel S, Hidalgo MC, Bahnemann DW, Geissen SU, Murugesan V, Vogelpohl A (2006) A fine route to tune the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. Appl Catal B 63:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sankar R, Rizwana K, Shivashangari KS, Ravikumar V (2015) Ultra-rapid photocatalytic activity of Azadirachta indica engineered colloidal titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Appl Nanosci 5:731–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Santhoshkumar T, Abdul Rahuman A, Jayaseelan C, Rajakumar G, Marimuthu S, Vishnu Kirthi A, Velayutham K, Thomas J, Venkatesan J, Kim S (2014) Green synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Psidium guajava extract and its antibacterial and antioxidant properties. Asian Pac J Trop 7:968–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shekshavali T, Hugar S (2012) Antimicrobial activity of Thespesia populnea Soland. ex Correa bark extracts. Indian J Nat Prod Resou 3:128–130Google Scholar
  44. Sosa IO, Noguez C, Barrera RG (2003) Optical properties of metal nanoparticle with arbitrary shapes. J Phys Chem B 107:6269–6275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Suman TY, Radhika Rajasree SR, Elumalai D, Kaleena PK, Ramkumar R, Perumal P, Aranganathan L, Chitrarasu PS (2015) Larvicidal activity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles synthesized using Morinda citrifolia root extract against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and its other effect on non-target fish. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 5:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sundaravadivelan C, Nalini Padmanabhan M, Sivaprasath P, Kishmu L (2013) Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from Pedilanthus tithymaloides leaf extract with anti-developmental activity againstlarval instars of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera; Culicidae). Parasitol Res 112:303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Suresh U, Murugan K, Benelli G, Nicoletti M, Barnard DR, Panneerselvam C, Mahesh Kumar P, Subramaniam J, Dinesh D, Chandramohan B (2015) Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res 114:1551–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tarafdar A, Raliya R, Wang WN, Biswas P, Tarafdar JC (2013) Green synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticle using Aspergillus tubingensis. Adv Sci Eng Med 5:943–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Tayade RJ, Surolia PK, Kulkarni RG, Jasr RV (2007) Photocatalytic degradation of dyes and organic contaminants in water using nano crystalline anatase and rutile TiO2. Sci Tech Adv Mater 8:455–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Turell MJ (2012) Members of the Culexpipiens complex as vectors of viruses. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 28:123–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vanaja M, Annadurai G (2013) Coleus aromaticus leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its bactericidal activity. Appl Nanosci 3:217–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Venkatachalam P, Kayalvizhi T, Jinu U, Benelli G, Geetha N (2017) Enhanced antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of phytochemical loaded-silver nanoparticles using Curculigo orchioides leaf extracts with different extraction techniques. J Clust Sci 28:607–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wanyonyi WC, Onyari JM, Shiundu PM (2014) Adsorption of congo red dye from aqueous solutions using roots of Eichhornia crassipes: kinetic and equilibrium studies. Energy Proc 50:862–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Williams D (2008) The relationship between biomaterials and nanotechnology. Biomaterials 29:1737–1738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yang HM, Zhang K, Shi RR, Li XW, Dang XD, Yu YM (2006) Sol–gel synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous TiO2 suspensions. Alloy Compd. 413: 302Google Scholar
  56. Zeman P, Takabayashi S (2003) Nano-scaled photocatalytic TiO2 thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films 433:57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhao Y, LiC Z, Liu XH, Gu F, Jiang HB (2007) Synthesis and optical properties of TiO2 nanoparticles by gas flame combustion. Mater Lett 61:79–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keerthika Thandapani
    • 1
  • Manikandan Kathiravan
    • 1
  • Elangovan Namasivayam
    • 1
  • Indira Arulselvi Padiksan
    • 1
  • Geetha Natesan
    • 2
  • Manish Tiwari
    • 3
  • Benelli Giovanni
    • 4
  • Venkatachalam Perumal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, School of BiosciencesPeriyar UniversitySalemIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia
  3. 3.Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIBGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  4. 4.Department of Agriculture, Food and EnvironmentUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations