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Spatio-temporal assessment and trend analysis of surface water salinity in the coastal region of Bangladesh

Abstract

The study was designed to collect water samples over two seasons—wet-monsoon season (n = 96) (March–April) and dry-monsoon season (n = 44) (September–October)—to understand the seasonal variation in anion and cation hydrochemistry of the coastal rivers and estuaries contributing in the spatial trend in salinity. Hydrochemical examination of wet-monsoon season primarily revealed Ca–Mg–HCO3 type (66%) and followed by Na–Cl type (17.70%) water. In the dry-monsoon season, the scenario reversed with primary water being Na–Cl type (52.27%) followed by Ca–Mg–HCO3 type (31.81%). Analysis of Cl/Br molar ratio vs. Cl (mg/L) depicted sampling area affected by seawater intrusion (SWI). Spatial analysis by ordinary kriging method confirmed approximately 77% sample in the dry-monsoon, and 34% of the wet-monsoon season had shown SWI. The most saline-intruded areas in the wet-monsoon seasons were extreme south-west coastal zone of Bangladesh, lower Meghna River floodplain and Meghna estuarine floodplain and south-eastern part of Chittagong coastal plains containing the districts of Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar adjacent to Bay of Bengal. In addition, mid-south zone is also affected slightly in the dry-monsoon season. From the analyses of data, this study could further help to comprehend seasonal trends in the hydrochemistry and water quality of the coastal and estuarine rivers. In addition, it can help policy makers to obligate some important implications for the future initiatives taken for the management of land, water, fishery, agriculture and environment of coastal rivers and estuaries of Bangladesh.

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Acknowledgements

This work has been supported by the project entitled “Establishment of monitoring network and mathematical model study to assess salinity intrusion in groundwater in the coastal area of Bangladesh due to climate change” implemented by Bangladesh Water Development Board and sponsored by Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund, Ministry of Environment and Forest.

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All authors discussed the results and implications and commented on the manuscript at all stages.

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Correspondence to Md. Mostafizur Rahman.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Shammi, M., Rahman, M.M., Islam, M.A. et al. Spatio-temporal assessment and trend analysis of surface water salinity in the coastal region of Bangladesh. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24, 14273–14290 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8976-7

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8976-7

Keywords

  • Seawater intrusion (SWI)
  • Estuary
  • Spatial salinity trend
  • Nonparametric test
  • Electric conductivity (EC)
  • Na/Cl molar ratio
  • Cl/Br molar ratio