Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 16, pp 14060–14070 | Cite as

Formetanate toxicity and changes in antioxidant enzyme system of Apis mellifera larvae

  • Martin Staroň
  • Rastislav SaboEmail author
  • Anna Sobeková
  • Lucia Sabová
  • Jaroslav Legáth
  • Ľuboslava Lohajová
  • Peter Javorský
Research Article


Substantial percentage of world food production depends on pollinating service of honeybees that directly depends on their health status. Among other factors, the success of bee colonies depends on health of developed larvae. The crucial phase of larval development is the first 6 days after hatching when a worker larva grows exponentially and larvae are potentially exposed to xenobiotics via diet. In the present study, we determined the lethal concentration LC50 (72 h) following single dietary exposure of honeybee larvae to formetanate under laboratory conditions, being also the first report available in scientific literature. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were also measured in the homogenates of in vitro reared honeybee larvae after single formetanate exposure. Decreased specific activity of SOD and increased activities of CAT and GST suggest the induction of oxidative stress. Higher levels of thiobarbituric reactive species in all samples supported this fact. Comparing determined larval toxicity (LC50 of 206.01 mg a.i./kg diet) with adult toxicity data, we can suppose that the larvae may be less sensitive to formetanate than the adult bees.


Honey bee larvae Enzymes Carbamate Dietary exposure 



Funding was provided by the Slovak Grant Agency VEGA (grant No. 1/0858/16 and No. 1/0176/16) and by the National Reference Laboratory for Pesticides of University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, Slovakia. The authors would like to thank Mgr. Tomáš Plichta for his help during the larvae rearing.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Animal Production Research Centre NitraInstitute of Apiculture Liptovský HrádokLiptovský HrádokSlovakia
  2. 2.Department of ToxicologyThe University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in KošiceKošiceSlovakia
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and BiophysicsThe University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in KošiceKošiceSlovakia
  4. 4.Department of PharmacologyThe University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in KošiceKošiceSlovakia
  5. 5.Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and BiophysicsThe University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in KošiceKošiceSlovakia
  6. 6.Institute of Animal Physiology SASKošiceSlovakia

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