Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 14, pp 13382–13395 | Cite as

The ecological risk, source identification, and pollution assessment of heavy metals in road dust: a case study in Rafsanjan, SE Iran

  • Milad Mirzaei Aminiyan
  • Mohammed Baalousha
  • Rouhollah Mousavi
  • Farzad Mirzaei Aminiyan
  • Hamideh Hosseini
  • Amin Heydariyan
Ecotoxicology in Tropical Regions

Abstract

Heavy metal (HM) contamination in road dust is a potential environmental and human health threat. The sources, concentrations, spatial distribution, and ecological risk of As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in road dust in Rafsanjan City, Iran, were investigated. Pollution was assessed using the enrichment factor (EF). The potentially harmful effects of HMs were evaluated by calculating the potential ecological risk factor of individual metals (E r ) and of multiple metals (RI) using the Hakanson method. Correlation and principal component analyses (PCA) were applied to identify HM pollution sources. The concentrations of HMs in road dust were higher (ca. 5–10 folds) than their natural background values. The EF and E r increased according to the following order Cu > Pb > As > Zn > Cd > Cr > Ni and Cu > Cd > Pb > As > Ni > Zn > Cr, respectively. Thus, Cu is regarded as the pollutant of highest concern. Based on potential ecological risk index (RI) spatial distribution, all parts of Rafsanjan are characterized by significantly high potential ecological risk. HM concentration heat maps, PCA, and correlation analysis suggest that Cu, Pb, As, Cd, and Zn may have originated from the same source and follow the same spatial distribution pattern. These metals originated mainly from anthropogenic sources like copper mining and smelting plants, industrial and chemical activities, inordinate application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in farmlands, and heavy traffic. Ni and Cr are likely to origniate from the industrial activities and traffic load in Rafsanjan City.

Keywords

Road dust Heavy metals Ecological risk Rafsanjan Pollution 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the students Meysam Akhoondi and Moein Hassani for their sampling and lab work. We declare that we have no financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that can inappropriately influence our work, and there is no professional or other personal interest of any nature or kind in any product, service, and/or company that could be construed as influencing the position presented in, or the review of, the manuscript entitled, “Ecological risk, pollution level and source identification of heavy metals in road and street dust: a case study in Rafsanjan, SE Iran”. The authors also express their thanks to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments that helped in improving the paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abollino O, Aceto M, Malandrino M, Mentasti E, Sarzanini C, Petrella F (2002) Heavy metals in agricultural soils from Piedmont, Italy. Distribution, speciation and chemometric data treatment Chemosphere 49:545–557Google Scholar
  2. Acosta J, Gabarrón M, Faz A, Martínez-Martínez S, Zornoza R, Arocena J (2015) Influence of population density on the concentration and speciation of metals in the soil and street dust from urban areas. Chemosphere 134:328–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Khashman OA (2007) The investigation of metal concentrations in street dust samples in Aqaba city, Jordan. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 29:197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aminiyan MM, Aminiyan FM, Mousavi R, Heydariyan A (2016) Heavy metal pollution affected by human activities and different land-use in urban topsoil: a case study in Rafsanjan city, Kerman province, Iran. Eurasian J Soil Sci 5(2):97–104. doi: 10.18393/ejss.2016.2.097-104 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Askari IB, Askari LB, Ameri M (2014) Wind power prefeasibility study for agricultural applications in Kerman, Iran: a case study. International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology 5:25–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Atafar Z, Mesdaghinia A, Nouri J, Homaee M, Yunesian M, Ahmadimoghaddam M, Mahvi AH (2010) Effect of fertilizer application on soil heavy metal concentration. Environ Monit Assess 160:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baalousha M et al (2016) Outdoor urban nanomaterials: the emergence of a new, integrated, and critical field of study. Sci Total Environ 557:740–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balabanova B, Stafilov T, Šajn R, Bačeva K (2011) Distribution of chemical elements in attic dust as reflection of their geogenic and anthropogenic sources in the vicinity of the copper mine and flotation plant. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 61:173–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhattacharya P, Welch AH, Stollenwerk KG, McLaughlin MJ, Bundschuh J, Panaullah G (2007) Arsenic in the environment: biology and chemistry. Sci Total Environ 379:109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Birch G, McCready S (2009) Catchment condition as a major control on the quality of receiving basin sediments (Sydney Harbour, Australia). Sci Total Environ 407:2820–2835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carrero JA, Arrizabalaga I, Bustamante J, Goienaga N, Arana G, Madariaga JM (2013) Diagnosing the traffic impact on roadside soils through a multianalytical data analysis of the concentration profiles of traffic-related elements. Sci Total Environ 458:427–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Charlesworth S, De Miguel E, Ordóñez A (2011) A review of the distribution of particulate trace elements in urban terrestrial environments and its application to considerations of risk. Environ Geochem Health 33:103–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen X, Xia X, Zhao Y, Zhang P (2010) Heavy metal concentrations in roadside soils and correlation with urban traffic in Beijing. China Journal of Hazardous Materials 181:640–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Christoforidis A, Stamatis N (2009) Heavy metal contamination in street dust and roadside soil along the major national road in Kavala’s region. Greece Geoderma 151:257–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Connelly KC (2003) Pesticides and permits: Clean Water Act v. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. Great Plains Nat Resources J 8:35Google Scholar
  16. Dayani M, Mohammadi J (2010) Geostatistical assessment of Pb, Zn and Cd contamination in near-surface soils of the urban-mining transitional region of Isfahan, Iran. Pedosphere 20:568–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Deihimfard R et al (2014) Evaluating risk from insecticide use at the field and regional scales in Iran. Crop Prot 65:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Duong TT, Lee B-K (2011) Determining contamination level of heavy metals in road dust from busy traffic areas with different characteristics. J Environ Manag 92:554–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Esmaeili A, Moore F, Keshavarzi B, Jaafarzadeh N, Kermani M (2014) A geochemical survey of heavy metals in agricultural and background soils of the Isfahan industrial zone, Iran. Catena 121:88–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ferreira-Baptista L, De Miguel E (2005) Geochemistry and risk assessment of street dust in Luanda, Angola: a tropical urban environment. Atmospheric Environment 39:4501–4512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Franco-Uría A, López-Mateo C, Roca E, Fernández-Marcos ML (2009) Source identification of heavy metals in pastureland by multivariate analysis in NW Spain. Journal of hazardous materials 165:1008–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gerdol R, Marchesini R, Iacumin P, Brancaleoni L (2014) Monitoring temporal trends of air pollution in an urban area using mosses and lichens as biomonitors. Chemosphere 108:388–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ghaderian SM, Ravandi AAG (2012) Accumulation of copper and other heavy metals by plants growing on Sarcheshmeh copper mining area, Iran. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 123:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gunawardana C, Goonetilleke A, Egodawatta P, Dawes L, Kokot S (2012) Source characterisation of road dust based on chemical and mineralogical composition. Chemosphere 87:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hakanson L (1980) An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water research 14:975–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hu N, Li Z, Huang P, Tao C (2006) Distribution and mobility of metals in agricultural soils near a copper smelter in South China. Environmental geochemistry and health 28:19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hu X, Zhang Y, Luo J, Wang T, Lian H, Ding Z (2011) Bioaccessibility and health risk of arsenic, mercury and other metals in urban street dusts from a mega-city, Nanjing, China. Environ Pollu 159:1215–1221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Huang J et al (2016) Integrating hierarchical bioavailability and population distribution into potential eco-risk assessment of heavy metals in road dust: a case study in Xiandao District, Changsha city, China. Science of The Total Environment 541:969–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kabata-Pendias A (2010) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC press,Google Scholar
  30. Karim Z, Qureshi BA, Mumtaz M, Qureshi S (2014) Heavy metal content in urban soils as an indicator of anthropogenic and natural influences on landscape of Karachi—a multivariate spatio-temporal analysis. Ecol Indic 42:20–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Keshavarzi B, Moore F, Estahbanati NA (2015a) Soil trace elements contamination in the vicinity of Khatoon Abad copper smelter, Kerman province, Iran. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences 7:195–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Keshavarzi B, Tazarvi Z, Rajabzadeh MA, Najmeddin A (2015b) Chemical speciation, human health risk assessment and pollution level of selected heavy metals in urban street dust of Shiraz, Iran. Atmospheric Environment 119:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liang Q, Grégoire DC (2000) Determination of trace elements in twenty six chinese geochemistry reference materials by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Geostandards Newsletter 24:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liao QL et al (2015) Association of soil cadmium contamination with ceramic industry: a case study in a Chinese town. Sci Total Environ 514:26–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu C, Li F, Luo C, Liu X, Wang S, Liu T, Li X (2009) Foliar application of two silica sols reduced cadmium accumulation in rice grains. J Hazard Mater 161:1466–1472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liu E, Yan T, Birch G, Zhu Y (2014) Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China. Sci Total Environ 476:522–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Liu W, Li X, Shen Z, Wang D, Wai O, Li Y (2003) Multivariate statistical study of heavy metal enrichment in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary. Environ Pollu 121:377–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lu S, Wang Y, Teng Y, Yu X (2015) Heavy metal pollution and ecological risk assessment of the paddy soils near a zinc-lead mining area in Hunan. Environmental monitoring and assessment 187:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lu X, Wang L, Lei K, Huang J, Zhai Y (2009) Contamination assessment of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel in street dust of Baoji, NW China. Journal of Hazardous Materials 161:1058–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mielke HW, Laidlaw MA, Gonzales C (2010) Lead (Pb) legacy from vehicle traffic in eight California urbanized areas: continuing influence of lead dust on children’s health. Science of the total environment 408:3965–3975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mirzaei Khalilabadi H, Chizari A, Dahajipour Heidarabadi M (2014) Effects of increasing price of energy carriers on energy consumption in pistachio production: case study in Rafsanjan, Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 16:697–704Google Scholar
  42. Mirzaei R, Ghorbani H, Moghaddas NH, Martín JAR (2014) Ecological risk of heavy metal hotspots in topsoils in the Province of Golestan, Iran. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 147:268–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Moreno T et al (2013) Daily and hourly sourcing of metallic and mineral dust in urban air contaminated by traffic and coal-burning emissions. Atmos Environ 68:33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Morton-Bermea O, Hernández-Álvarez E, González-Hernández G, Romero F, Lozano R, Beramendi-Orosco L (2009) Assessment of heavy metal pollution in urban topsoils from the metropolitan area of Mexico City. J Geochem Explor 101:218–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nicholson F, Smith S, Alloway B, Carlton-Smith C, Chambers B (2003) An inventory of heavy metals inputs to agricultural soils in England and Wales. Science of the total environment 311:205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. C-r N, Yan LL (2011) Restoration of several afforest trees to the contaminated soil by ceramics industry. Journal of Foshan University (Natural Science Edition) 29:32–37Google Scholar
  47. Obiajunwa E, Pelemo D, Owolabi S, Fasasi M, Johnson-Fatokun F (2002) Characterisation of heavy metal pollutants of soils and sediments around a crude-oil production terminal using EDXRF. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res, Sect B 194:61–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rasmussen P, Subramanian K, Jessiman B (2001) A multi-element profile of house dust in relation to exterior dust and soils in the city of Ottawa, Canada. Science of the Total Environment 267:125–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rastmanesh F, Moore F, Kopaei MK, Keshavarzi B, Behrouz M (2011) Heavy metal enrichment of soil in Sarcheshmeh copper complex, Kerman, Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences 62:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rizo OD, Castillo FE, López JA, Merlo MH (2011) Assessment of heavy metal pollution in urban soils of Havana city, Cuba. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 87:414–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rout TK, Masto RE, Padhy PK, George J, Ram LC, Maity S (2014) Dust fall and elemental flux in a coal mining area. J Geochem Explor 144:443–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Saeedi M, Li LY, Salmanzadeh M (2012) Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: pollution and ecological risk assessment in street dust of Tehran. J Hazard Mater 227:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shilton VF, Booth CA, Smith JP, Giess P, Mitchell DJ, Williams CD (2005) Magnetic properties of urban street dust and their relationship with organic matter content in the West Midlands, UK. Atmospheric Environment 39:3651–3659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Soltani N, Keshavarzi B, Moore F, Tavakol T, Lahijanzadeh AR, Jaafarzadeh N, Kermani M (2015) Ecological and human health hazards of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road dust of Isfahan metropolis, Iran. Science of The Total Environment 505:712–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sun C, Liu J, Wang Y, Sun L, Yu H (2013) Multivariate and geostatistical analyses of the spatial distribution and sources of heavy metals in agricultural soil in Dehui, Northeast China. Chemosphere 92:517–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sutherland R (2000) Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii. Environmental Geology 39:611–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tang R, Ma K, Zhang Y, Mao Q (2013) The spatial characteristics and pollution levels of metals in urban street dust of Beijing, China. Applied geochemistry 35:88–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Trujillo-González JM, Torres-Mora MA, Keesstra S, Brevik EC, Jiménez-Ballesta R (2016) Heavy metal accumulation related to population density in road dust samples taken from urban sites under different land uses. Sci Total Environ 553:636–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wang H, Lu S (2011) Spatial distribution, source identification and affecting factors of heavy metals contamination in urban–suburban soils of Lishui city, China. Environmental Earth Sciences 64:1921–1929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wei B, Jiang F, Li X, Mu S (2010) Contamination levels assessment of potential toxic metals in road dust deposited in different types of urban environment. Environmental Earth Sciences 61:1187–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wei B, Yang L (2010) A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China. Microchem J 94:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wei X, Gao B, Wang P, Zhou H, Lu J (2015) Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in street dusts from different functional areas in Beijing, China. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 112:186–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yuen J, Olin PH, Lim H, Benner SG, Sutherland R, Ziegler A (2012) Accumulation of potentially toxic elements in road deposited sediments in residential and light industrial neighborhoods of Singapore. J Environ Manag 101:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zhao H, Li X, Wang X, Tian D (2010) Grain size distribution of road-deposited sediment and its contribution to heavy metal pollution in urban runoff in Beijing, China. Journal of Hazardous Materials 183:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zheng N, Liu J, Wang Q, Liang Z (2010) Health risk assessment of heavy metal exposure to street dust in the zinc smelting district, Northeast of China. Science of the Total Environment 408:726–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Soil Science Department, College of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina UniversityHamedanIran
  2. 2.Center for Environmental Nanoscience and Risk, Arnold School of Public HealthUniversity South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.Soil Science Department, College of AgricultureTehran UniversityTehranIran
  4. 4.Civil Engineering Department, College of EngineeringVali-e-Asr Rafsanjan UniversityRafsanjanIran
  5. 5.Soil Science Department, College of AgricultureVali-e-Asr Rafsanjan UniversityRafsanjanIran

Personalised recommendations