Dissipation and phytoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in freshly spiked and long-term field-contaminated soils
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Pot experiments were used to compare the dissipation and phytoremediation effect of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a freshly spiked soil and two field-contaminated soils with different soil organic carbon (SOC) contents (Anthrosols, 1.41% SOC; Phaeozems, 8.51% SOC). In spiked soils, the dissipation rates of phenanthrene and pyrene were greater than 99.5 and 94.3%, respectively, in planted treatments and 95.0 and 84.5%, respectively, in unplanted treatments. In field-contaminated Anthrosols, there were limited but significant reductions of 10.2 and 15.4% of total PAHs in unplanted and planted treatments, respectively. In field-contaminated Phaeozems, there were no significant reductions of total PAHs in either unplanted or planted treatments. A phytoremediation effect was observed for the spiked soils and the Anthrosols, but not for the Phaeozems. The results indicated that laboratory tests with spiked soils cannot reflect the real state of field-contaminated soils. Phytoremediation efficiency of PAHs in field-contaminated soils was mainly determined by the content of SOC. Phytoremediation alone has no effect on the removal of PAHs in field-contaminated soils with high SOC content.
KeywordsPhytoremediation Phytoavailability PAHs Spiked soil Field-contaminated soil Soil organic matter
This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41671326), the Basic Scientific Research Special Project for Research Institutes of Fujian Province (2015R1034), the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province (2014J01153), and the Program for Innovative Research Team in Fujian Normal University, China (IRTL1205). The appreciation is also given to Dr. Joseph J. Pignatello of CAES, USA, for language corrections.
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