Stockpiles of perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) containing aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) have the potential to be emitted by leaching, spills, and during use in fire response and other processes. Several studies have discussed the high levels of stockpiled PFOS-containing AFFF and the risk they pose to the environment; however, there are large gaps in the amounts in Japan compared with other countries. For example, 300 tons are stockpiled in Canada, 2200–2600 tons in Switzerland, 1400 tons in Norway, and 19,000 tons in Japan from their reports for publication. The gap is considered to be a result of lack of surveys of several important sources. In this study, we revaluated the stockpile of AFFF in Japan to verify the reported value and identify the source of this gap based on information available in peer-reviewed papers, governmental reports, and business reports. The major reason for the gap between Japan and other countries was considered to be the survey of stockpiles in car-parking facilities, which accounted for 46.7% of the total amounts in Japan, but were not considered in other countries. These stockpiles indicate a high potential for accidental leaching or spilling of the AFFF by careless storage. Therefore, it is recommended that continual surveys of the AFFF stockpile in car-parking facilities be conducted in the rest of the world.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Alder AC, van der Voet J (2015) Occurrence and point source characterization of perfluoroalkyl acids in sewage sludge. Chemosphere 129:62–73
Bennetts ID, Proe D, Lewins R, Thomas IR (1985) Open-deck car park fire tests BHP Steel International Group, Whyalla, p 24
Burgi H (1971) Swiss tests on fire behaviour in enclosed and underground car parks. Fire International 33:64–77
Committee on Disaster Prevention and Crisis Management in 9 Japanese Prefectures (2013) Measures for disaster prevention by private companies including petrochemical complexes, p 55 http://www.9tokenshi-bousai.jp/wp-cntpnl/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/201305.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2016 (in Japanese)
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2008) Scientific opinion of the panel on contaminants in the food chain on perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and their salts. Parma, p 131 http://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/scientific_output/files/main_documents/653.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2016
Federal Office for the Environment in Switzerland (FOEN) (2009) Substance flow analysis for Switzerland, Bern, p 144 http://www.bafu.admin.ch/publikationen/publikation/01066/index.html?lang=en&lang=en. Accessed 28 July 2016
Fire Fighting Foam Coalition (FFFC) (2004) Estimated quantities of aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) in the United States, Arlington, p 45 http://chm.pops.int/TheConvention/POPsReviewCommittee/Meetings/POPRC7/POPRC7Followup/Requestsforinformation/RequestsforcommentsbyPOPRC7IWGs/CommentsonPFOSinopenapplications/tabid/2746/ctl/Download/mid/8994/Default.aspx?id=11&ObjID=14392. Accessed 28 July 2016
Fire Fighting Foam Coalition (FFFC) (2011) Estimated inventory of PFOS-based aqueous film forming foam (AFFF), Arlington, p 18 http://chm.pops.int/TheConvention/POPsReviewCommittee/Meetings/POPRC7/POPRC7Followup/Requestsforinformation/RequestsforcommentsbyPOPRC7IWGs/CommentsonPFOSinopenapplications/tabid/2746/ctl/Download/mid/8994/Default.aspx?id=12&ObjID=14391. Accessed 28 July 2016
Gerwin RG (1973) Fire experience and fire tests in automobile parking structures. Fire Journal 67:50–54
Houtz EF, Higgins CP, Field JA, Sedlak DL (2013) Persistence of perfluoroalkyl acid precursors in AFFF-impacted groundwater and soil. Environ Sci Technol 47:8187–8195
Japanese Fire and Disaster Management Agency (2001) Announcement on mixed use of foam fire extinguishers. http://www.fdma.go.jp/html/data/tuchi1311/131116yobo398.htm. Accessed 28 July 2016 (in Japanese)
Japanese Fire and Disaster Management Agency (2005) Report on fire-safety for ruel cell cars in underground car parking facilities. http://www.fdma.go.jp/neuter/topics/nenryo_denchi/chapter0303.pdf. p 133. Accessed 28 July 2016 (in Japanese)
Japanese Fire and Disaster Management Agency (2010) Mixed use of PFOS-containing foam fire extinguisher, p 6 http://www.fdma.go.jp/html/data/tuchi2209/pdf/220915_yo416.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2016 (in Japanese)
Japanese Fire Extinguisher Industry Association (2016) Annual report on recycling systems for disposed fire extinguishers, p 40 http://www.ferpc.jp/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/haishokaki27.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2016 (in Japanese)
Japanese Ordinance for Enforcement of the Fire Service Act (2016) http://law.e-gov.go.jp/htmldata/S36/S36F04301000006.html. Accessed 28 July 2016 (in Japanese)
Li Y (2004) Assessment of vehicle fires in New Zealand parking buildings. Master’s thesis, University of Canterbury
Loganathan B (2012) Global contamination trends of persistent organic chemicals: an overview. In: Loganathan B (ed) Global contamination trends of persistent organic chemicals. CRC Press, Florida, pp 3–31
Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) (2008) Perfluorochemical contamination in Lake Elmo and Oakdale, Washington County, Minnesota, p 173 http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/hazardous/sites/washington/lakeelmo/phaelmooakdale.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2016
Miyashita T (2014) Model development for predicting trajectory of firefighting foam and sprayed water from a high volume system used for petroleum tank fires. PhD Thesis, Tokyo University of Science, https://tus.repo.nii.ac.jp/?action=repository_uri&item_id=53&file_id=20&file_no=2. Accessed 28 July 2016 (in Japanese)
Moody CA, Field JA (2000) Perfluorinated surfactants and the environmental implications of their use in firefighting foams. Environ Sci Technol 34:3864–3870
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) (1998) NFPA 88A Standard for parking Structures, Massachusetts
National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster Japan (2006) Research report on safety for petroleum tank fires, fire-extinguishing properties of foam type fire extinguishers used for petroleum tank fires. Research Report by the National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster Japan, p 287 http://nrifd.fdma.go.jp/publication/gijutsushiryo/gijutsushiryo_41_80/files/shiryo_no73.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2016 (in Japanese)
Newsted JL, Jones PD, Coady K, Giesy JP (2005) Avian toxicity reference values for perfluorooctane sulfonate. Environ Sci Technol 39:9357–9362
Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT) (2005) Inventory of PFOS and PFOS-related substances in fire-fighting foams in Norway, Oslo, p 25 http://www.miljodirektoratet.no/old/klif/publikasjoner/2961/ta2961.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2016
Osaka Prefectural Government (2014) Regional disaster prevention plan for Osaka prefecture (basic measures), p 358. http://www.pref.osaka.lg.jp/kikikanri/siryou/index.html. Accessed 28 July 2016 (in Japanese)
Prevedouros K, Cousins IT, Buck RC, Korzeniowski SH (2006) Sources, fate and transport of perfluorocarboxylates. Environ Sci Technol 40:32–44
Seacat AM, Thomford PJ, Hansen KJ, Olsen GW, Case MT, Butenhoff JL (2002) Subchronic toxicity studies on perfluorooctanesulfonate potassium salt in Cynomolgus monkeys. Toxicol Sci 68:249–264
Seacat AM, Thomford PJ, Hansen KJ, Clemen LA, Eldridge SR, Elcombe CR, Butenhoff JL (2003) Sub-chronic dietary toxicity of potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate in rats. Toxicology 183:117–131
Taniyasu S, Yamashita N, Yamazaki E, Rostkowski P, Yeung LWY, Kurunthachalam SK, Kannan K, Loganathan BG (2015) Contamination profiles of perfluorinated chemicals in the inland and coastal waters of Japan following the use of fire-fighting foams. In: Ahuja S, Andrade J, Dionysiou D, Hristoyski K, Loganathan BG (eds) Water challenges and solutions on a global scale. American Chemical Society symposium, vol 1206. ACS Division of Environmental Chemistry Inc., Washington, DC, pp 221–244
UK Environment Agency (2004) Environmental risk evaluation report: perfluorooctanesulphonate (PFOS), UK, p 104 http://www.pops.int/documents/meetings/poprc/submissions/Comments_2006/sia/pfos.uk.risk.eval.report.2004.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2016
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2011) Guidance on alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its derivatives, p 40 http://chm.pops.int/Portals/0/download.aspx?d=UNEP-POPS-POPRC.6-13-Add.3-Rev.1.English.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2016
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) (2009) Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) production and use: past and current evidence. UNIDO Regional Office, China, p 56 https://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Services/Environmental_Management/Stockholm_Convention/POPs/DC_Perfluorooctane%20Sulfonate%20Report.PDF. Accessed 28 July 2016
Watanabe S, Nemoto M, Iida A, Iida M, Ishikawa J, Shiokawa H, Komuro O, Kato K, Sinozuka T, Ogino Y, Akasaka H, Sakamoto T (2001) Studies on effectiveness of extinguishing agents in fire fighting. Report of the Research Institute for Fire Safety 38:27–33 (in Japanese)
World Semiconductor Council (WSC) (2009) Joint statement of the 13th meeting of the world semiconductor council in Beijing, p 8
Zushi Y, Masunaga S (2011) Temporal trend of perfluorinated compounds from various environmental matrices. In: Loganathan B (ed) Global contamination trends of persistent organic chemicals. CRC Press, Florida, pp 71–83
Zushi Y, Hogarh J, Masunaga S (2012) Progress and perspective of perfluorinated compound risk assessment and management in various countries and institutes. Clean Technol Envir 14:9–20
This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI (grant no. 15H05340). The authors thank Yuki Yamatori for her help preparing the map shown in the figures.
Responsible editor: Roland Kallenborn
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Zushi, Y., Yamamoto, A., Tsunemi, K. et al. Revaluation of stockpile amount of PFOS-containing aqueous film-forming foam in Japan: gaps and pitfalls in the stockpile survey. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24, 6736–6745 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-8374-1
- Car parking facilities
- Fire extinguisher