Heavy metal pollution in immobile and mobile components of lentic ecosystems—a review

Abstract

With growing population and urbanization, there is an increasing exploitation of natural resources, and this often results to environmental pollution. In this review, the levels of heavy metal in lentic compartments (water, sediment, fishes, and aquatic plants) over the past two decades (1997–2017) have been summarized to evaluate the current pollution status of this ecosystem. In all the compartments, the heavy metals dominated are zinc followed by iron. The major reason could be area mineralogy and lithogenic sources. Enormous quantity of metals like iron in estuarine sediment is a very natural incident due to the permanently reducing condition of organic substances. Contamination of cadmium, lead, and chromium was closely associated with anthropogenic origin. In addition, surrounding land use and atmospheric deposition could have been responsible for substantial pollution. The accumulation of heavy metals in fishes and aquatic plants is the result of time-dependent deposition in lentic ecosystems. Moreover, various potential risk assessment methods for heavy metals were discussed. This review concludes that natural phenomena dominate the accumulation of essential heavy metals in lentic ecosystems compared to anthropogenic sources. Amongst other recent reviews on heavy metals from other parts of the world, the present review is executed in such a way that it explains the presence of heavy metals not only in water environment, but also in the whole of the lentic system comprising sediment, fishes, and aquatic plants.

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Funding

Financial support from the Project supported by Guangdong Province Universities and Colleges Pearl River Scholar Funded Scheme is greatly acknowledged.

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Correspondence to Feng Long Gu.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Meena, R.A.A., Sathishkumar, P., Ameen, F. et al. Heavy metal pollution in immobile and mobile components of lentic ecosystems—a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 4134–4148 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0966-2

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Keywords

  • Lentic ecosystem
  • Heavy metal pollution
  • Water
  • Sediment
  • Fishes
  • Aquatic plants