Reactivation and reuse of TiO2-SnS2 composite catalyst for solar-driven water treatment
- 307 Downloads
One of the most important features of photocatalytic materials intended to be used for water treatment is their long-term stability. The study is focused on the application of thermal and chemical treatments for the reactivation of TiO2-SnS2 composite photocatalyst, prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and immobilized on the glass support using titania/silica binder. Such a catalytic system was applied in solar-driven treatment, solar/TiO2-SnS2/H2O2, for the purification of water contaminated with diclofenac (DCF). The effectiveness of studied reactivation methods for retaining TiO2-SnS2 activity in consecutive cycles was evaluated on basis of DCF removal and conversion, and TOC removal and mineralization of organic content. Besides these water quality parameters, biodegradability changes in DCF aqueous solution treated by solar/TiO2-SnS2/H2O2 process using simply reused (air-dried) and thermally and chemically reactivated composite photocatalyst through six consecutive cycles were monitored. It was established that both thermal and chemical reactivation retain TiO2-SnS2 activity in the second cycle of its reuse. However, both treatments caused the alteration in the TiO2-SnS2 morphology due to the partial transformation of visible-active SnS2 into non-active SnO2. Such alteration, repeated through consecutive reactivation and reuse, was reflected through gradual activity loss of TiO2-SnS2 composite in applied solar-driven water treatment.
KeywordsCatalyst reuse TiO2-SnS2 composite Thermal reactivation Ozone reactivation Solar water treatment Diclofenac
This study received financial support from the Croatian Science Foundation (Project UIP-11-2013-7900; Environmental Implications of the Application of Nanomaterials in Water Purification Technologies (NanoWaP)).
- ChemSpider: search and share chemistry (2017) Accessed on July 10, 2017 http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.2925.html?rid=90bff2bc-64e5-43da-a152-0afe422aaf6d
- EU (2013) Directive 2013/39/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC as regards priority substances in the field of water policy. Off J Eur Commun 226:1–17Google Scholar
- Kovacic M, Kusic H, Lavrencic Stangar U, Dionysiou DD, Loncaric Bozic A. (2016a) Solar driven degradation of pharmaceuticals using immobilized composite photocatalyst, Book of Abstracts of The 21st International Conference on Semiconductor Photocatalysis and Solar Energy Conversion (SPASEC-21), Atlanta, GA, November 13–16, 2016; Redox Technologies. London, Ontario, Canada, 2016; SPASEC-21 pp. 50Google Scholar
- Myers RH, Montgomery DC, Anderson-Cook CM (2009) Response surface methodology: process and product optimization using designed experiments, 3rd edn. John Wiley & Sons, HobokenGoogle Scholar
- Reszczynska J, Iwulska A, Sliwinski G, Zaleska A (2012) Characterization and photocatalytic activity of rare earth metal-doped titanium dioxide. Physicochem Probl Miner Process 48(1):201–208Google Scholar