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Kinetics and pathways of Bezafibrate degradation in UV/chlorine process

Abstract

UV/chlorine, as a novel disinfection method, has attracted great interest due to its effective removal for pathogenic microorganism and degradation of trace organic contaminants existed in water environment. This paper investigated the degradation kinetics and pathways of Bezafibrate (BZF), a typical antilipemic drug, during UV/chlorine process. The results showed that 92.3% of BZF was degraded after 20 min in UV/chlorine process. This indicated HO• and reactive chlorine species (RCSs) formed in UV/chlorine played the dominant role in degrading BZF. Observed rate constants of BZF degradation (k obs,BZF) in UV/chlorine process increased linearly in a wide chlorine dosage from 0.1 to 1.0 mM, which implied that ClO• generated from the reactions of chlorine with HO• and Cl• could react with BZF rapidly. The steady-state kinetic modeling result proved this deduction and the rate constant of ClO• with BZF was fitted to be 5.0 × 108 M−1 s−1. k obs,BZF was affected by Cl and HA. The total contribution of RCSs (including Cl•, Cl2, and ClO•) to the degradation of BZF was determined to be ~ 80%, which is much higher than that of HO•. Thirteen degradation products of BZF were identified by LC-MS/MS. Initial degradation products were arisen from hydroxylation, chlorine substitution and cyclization by HO• and RCSs, and then further oxidized to generate acylamino cleavage and demethylation products.

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Funding

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51578066 and 51608036), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 8152022), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2015ZCQ-HJ-02).

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Correspondence to Li-Qiu Zhang.

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Responsible editor: Bingcai Pan

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Shi, XT., Liu, YZ., Tang, YQ. et al. Kinetics and pathways of Bezafibrate degradation in UV/chlorine process. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 672–682 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0461-9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0461-9

Keywords

  • UV/chlorine process
  • Bezafibrate
  • Degradation kinetics and pathways
  • Reactive chlorine species