Hair mercury and risk assessment for consumption of contaminated seafood in residents from the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran
- 213 Downloads
The health risks of mercury exposure due to the high consumption of aquatic were assessed for fishermen and non-fishermen families living on the Bandar Abbas, Bushehr, and Mahshahr cities located in the coast of Persian Gulf (Iran). The mean hair mercury concentration of people in Bandar Abbas, Bushehr, and Mahshahr cities was obtained 1.56 ± 0.17, 1.97 ± 0.22, and 5.12 ± 0.3 μg g−1, respectively. Hair mercury concentration in 8.8% of people exceeded the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of 10 μg g−1 declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). The fish and shrimps consumption, place of living, and fisher and non-fisherman family were variables that significantly effected on mercury levels in the hair. The effect of other factors (age, sex, and number of dental amalgam fillings) on hair mercury was not significant. The mean concentrations of mercury in three fish species in Mahshahr exceeded the recommended maximum standard level (0.5 μg g−1) set by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The estimated weekly intake (EWI) for mercury in some fish species in Bandar Abbas, Bushehr, and Mahshahr was higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (1.6 μg kg−1 bw) set by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for some groups. The significant positive correlation between daily mercury intake and hair mercury concentration of people (r = 0.64, P < 0.001) reasserts that the hair mercury concentration could be explained by fish consumption. HQ > 1 was obtained for women in child bearing age in fishermen families in Bandar Abbas and Bushehr cities, children in fishermen families in Bushehr, and for all groups of population except adult in non-fishermen families in Mahshahr. So, the limited consumption of some fish species for these groups of people is recommended. The maximum of allowable fish consumption rate was 0.70 meals/month for Pseudorhombus arsius from Mahshahr fish for women of child bearing age. Also, it is necessary to create and monitor and enforce environmental standards, preventing the entry of pollutants released into the marine aquatic environment without proper early treatment.
KeywordsHuman health Risk assessment Mercury Fishermen Fish consumption Persian Gulf
We thank the general directorate of fisheries Hormozgan and Bushehr provinces for help us in sampling collection process. We also appreciate the directorate of fisheries in Mahshahr for official cooperation.
This work was funded by Tarbiat Modares University (TMU).
- AFS (Annual fishery statistics of Iran) (2010) Consumption of fish in Iran. Ministry of Agriculture, Iran, pp 36–40Google Scholar
- Agah H, Leermakers M, Marc Elskens S, Fatemi MR, Baeyens W (2007) Total mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in fish from the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea. Water Air Soil Pollut 181(1–4):95–105Google Scholar
- Alberta Health and Wellness (2009) Human health risk assessment mercury in fish in central Alberta Lac la Nonne and Lac Ste Anne. ISBN: 978-0-7785-7428-6 (Online).Google Scholar
- Antonijevic B, Jankovic S, Curcic M, Durgo K, Stokic E, Srdic B, Tomic-Naglic D (2011) Risk characterization for mercury, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls associated with fish consumption in Serbia. Food Chem Toxicol 49(10):2586–2593. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2011.06.078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Asefi M, Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi R (2015) Mercury concentrations and health risk assessment for two fish species, Barbus grypus and Barbus luteus, from the Maroon River, Khuzestan Province, Iran. Environ Monit Assess 187(10):653Google Scholar
- Bonsignore M, Salvagio Manta D, Oliveri E, Sprovieri M, Basilone G, Bonanno A, Falco F, Traina A, Mazzola S (2013) Mercury in fishes from Augusta Bay (Southern Italy): risk assessment and health implication. Food Chem Toxicol 56:148–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2013.02.025. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Brodzka R, Trzcinka-Ochocka M (2009) Mercury in hair—an indicator of environmental exposure. Med Pr 60(4):303–314Google Scholar
- Chan HM, Egeland GM (2004) Fish consumption, mercury exposure, and heart diseases. Nutr Rev 62:68–72. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2004.tb00027.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- EFSA (European and Food Safety Authority) (2004) Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to mercury and methylmercury in food (Request No. EFSA-Q-2003-030) (adopted on 24 February 2004). EFSA J 34:1–14Google Scholar
- European Commission (2004) Commission regulation no 466/2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuff. Off. J European Communities http://european.cu.int/eurlex/pri/en/oj/dat/2002/I_037/I_03720020207en00040006.pdf.
- Faria M, Carrasco L, Diez S, Riva MC, Bayona JM, Barata C (2009) Multi-biomarker responses in the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha exposed to polychlorobiphenyls and metals. Comp Biochem Physiol C: Toxicol Pharmacol 149(3):281–288Google Scholar
- FDA (2004) Fish, shellfish, crustaceans and other aquatic animals—fresh, frozen or processed methylmercury. http://www.fda.gov/ora/compliance_ref/cpg/cpgfod/cpg540-600.html.
- Fuentes-Gandara F, Pinedo-Herna’ndez J, Marrugo-Negrete J, Dı’ez S (2016, 2016) Human health impacts of exposure to metals through extreme consumption of fish from the Colombian Caribbean Sea. Environ Geochem Health:1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-016-9896-z.
- GA (Government of Alberta) (2009) Human health risk assessment mercury in fish. Pine Coulee and Twin Valley water management projects Southern Alberta. Alberta Health and Wellness, October 2009.Google Scholar
- Giangrosso G, Cammilleri G, Macaluso A, Vella A, D’Orazio N, Graci S, LoDico GM, Galvano F, Giangrosso M, Ferrantelli V (2016) Hair mercury levels detection in fishermen from Sicily (Italy) by ICP-MS method after microwave-assisted digestion. Bioinorg Chem Appl:1–5. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5408014
- Health Canada (2007) Human health risk assessment of mercury in fish and health benefits of fish consumption. ISBN: 978-0-662-47023-6.Google Scholar
- Jalilian M, Dadollahi-Sohrab A, Nikpour Y (2011) Distribution and contamination of mercury in Metapenaeus affinis shrimp and sediments from Musa Creek (northwestern part of the Persian Gulf), I.R Iran. World J Fish and Mar Sci 3:227–231Google Scholar
- JECFA (2014) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants (sixty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Available online: (http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/jecfa-reports/en/) (accessed on 24 August 2014).
- Khoshnood R, Jaafarzadeh N, Khoshnood Z, Ahmadi M, Teymouri P (2014) Estimation of target hazard quotients for metals by consumption of fish in the north coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran. J Adv Environ Health Res 2(4):263–272Google Scholar
- Kruzikova K, Kensova R, Blahova J, Harustiakova D, Svobodova Z (2009) Using human hair as an indicator for exposure to mercury. Neuroendocrinol Lett 30(1):177Google Scholar
- Lémire M, Fillion M, Frenette B, Mayer A, Philibert A, Passos CJS, Guimarães JRD, Barbosa F Jr, Mergler D (2010) Selenium and mercury in the Brazilian Amazon: opposing influences on age-related cataracts. Environ Health Perspect 118(11):1584–1589. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901284 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Maghtouie AH, Neissi G, Nasseri S, Gholaminezhad E, Shalamzari N, Nikpour Y (2011) Determination of mercury in mullet fish (Liza abu) from Arvand River, Iran. World J Fish and Mar Sci 3(6):514–517Google Scholar
- Malvandi H, Ghasempouri SM, Esmaili-Sari A, Bahramifar N (2010) Evaluation of the suitability of application of golden jackal (Canis aureus) hair as a noninvasive technique for determination of body burden mercury. Ecotoxicology 19(6):997–1002. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-010-0504-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marcotrigiano GO, Storelli MM (2003) Heavy metal, polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide residues in marine organisms: risk evaluation for consumers. Vet Res Commun 27:183–195. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:VERC.0000014137.02422.f4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mergler D, Anderson HA, Chan LHM, Mahaffey KR, Murray M, Sakamoto M et al (2007) Methylmercury exposure and health effects in humans: a worldwide concern. Ambio 36(1):3–11. https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[3:MEAHEI]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Morgan JN, Berry MR, Graves RL (1997) Effects of commonly used cooking practices on total mercury concentration in fish and their impact on exposure assessments. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 7:119–133Google Scholar
- Mortazavi MS, Sharifian S (2011) Mercury bioaccumulation in some commercially valuable marine organisms from Mosa Bay, Persian Gulf. Int J Environ Res 5(3):757–762Google Scholar
- Olivero-Verbel J, Carranza-Lopez L, Caballero-Gallardo K, Ripoll-Arboleda A, Muñoz-Sosa D (2016) Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury pollution in the Caqueta River, Colombian Amazon. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(20):20761–20771. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7255-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ralston NVC, Ralston CR, Blackwell JL, Raymond LJ (2008) Dietary and tissue selenium in relation to methylmercury toxicity. NeuroToxicology 29(5):802–811Google Scholar
- Safahieh A, Abdolahpur Monikh F, Savari A (2011) Heavy metals contamination in sediment and sole fish (Euryglossa orientalis) from Musa estuary (Persian Gulf). W J Fish Mar Sci 3:290–297Google Scholar
- Storelli MM (2008) Potential human health risks from metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) via seafood consumption: estimation of target hazard quotients (THQs) and toxic equivalents (TEQs). Food Chem Toxicol 46:2782–2788. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph7062666. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sysalová J, Kučera J, Fikrle M, Drtinová B (2013) Determination of the total mercury in contaminated soils by direct solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry using an AMA-254 device and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Microchem J 110:691–694. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2013.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- UNEP (2008) Guidance for identifying populations at risk from mercury exposure. Issued by UNEP DTIE Chemicals Branch and WHO Department of Food Safety, Zoonoses and Foodborne Diseases, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/en/
- USEPA (2000) Guidance for assessing chemical contaminant data for use in fish advisories, volume 2: risk assessment and fish consumption limits, 3rd edition. United States Environ. Prot. Agency, Washington, DC 1, (823-NaN-00–008)Google Scholar
- USEPA (2001a) Mercury update: impact on fish advisories. EPA-823-F-01-011. Office of Water, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- USEPA (2001b) Water quality criterion for the protection of human health: methylmercury, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (2005) Water quality criterion for the protection of human health: methylmercury [cited 29 June 2005]. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/methylmercury.
- USEPA (2009) The national study of chemical residues in lake fish tissue, EPA-823-R-09-006. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (2013) Mercury: health effects. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/hg/effects.htm.
- Vieira SM, de Almeida R, Holanda IB, Mussy MH, Galvão RC, Crispim PT, Dórea JG, Bastos WR (2013) Total and methyl-mercury in hair and milk of mothers living in the city of Porto Velho and in villages along the Rio Madeira, Amazon, Brazil (2013). Int J Hyg Environ Health 216:682–689. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.12.011. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Voegborlo R, Matsuyama A, Adimado A, Akagi H (2010) Head hair total mercury and methylmercury levels in some Ghanaian individuals for the estimation of their exposure to mercury: preliminary studies. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84:34–38. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-009-9901-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization (2010) Children’s exposure to mercury compounds. Available online: http: //wwwwhoint/ceh/publications/children_exposure/en/indexhtml (accessed on 23 February 2017).
- Zillioux EJ (2015) Mercury in fish: history, sources, pathways, effects, and indicator usage, environmental indicators. Springer, pp 743–766.Google Scholar