Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 639–657 | Cite as

Hair mercury and risk assessment for consumption of contaminated seafood in residents from the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran

  • Narjes Okati
  • Abbas Esmaili-sariEmail author
Research Article


The health risks of mercury exposure due to the high consumption of aquatic were assessed for fishermen and non-fishermen families living on the Bandar Abbas, Bushehr, and Mahshahr cities located in the coast of Persian Gulf (Iran). The mean hair mercury concentration of people in Bandar Abbas, Bushehr, and Mahshahr cities was obtained 1.56 ± 0.17, 1.97 ± 0.22, and 5.12 ± 0.3 μg g−1, respectively. Hair mercury concentration in 8.8% of people exceeded the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) of 10 μg g−1 declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). The fish and shrimps consumption, place of living, and fisher and non-fisherman family were variables that significantly effected on mercury levels in the hair. The effect of other factors (age, sex, and number of dental amalgam fillings) on hair mercury was not significant. The mean concentrations of mercury in three fish species in Mahshahr exceeded the recommended maximum standard level (0.5 μg g−1) set by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The estimated weekly intake (EWI) for mercury in some fish species in Bandar Abbas, Bushehr, and Mahshahr was higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (1.6 μg kg−1 bw) set by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for some groups. The significant positive correlation between daily mercury intake and hair mercury concentration of people (r = 0.64, P < 0.001) reasserts that the hair mercury concentration could be explained by fish consumption. HQ > 1 was obtained for women in child bearing age in fishermen families in Bandar Abbas and Bushehr cities, children in fishermen families in Bushehr, and for all groups of population except adult in non-fishermen families in Mahshahr. So, the limited consumption of some fish species for these groups of people is recommended. The maximum of allowable fish consumption rate was 0.70 meals/month for Pseudorhombus arsius from Mahshahr fish for women of child bearing age. Also, it is necessary to create and monitor and enforce environmental standards, preventing the entry of pollutants released into the marine aquatic environment without proper early treatment.


Human health Risk assessment Mercury Fishermen Fish consumption Persian Gulf 



We thank the general directorate of fisheries Hormozgan and Bushehr provinces for help us in sampling collection process. We also appreciate the directorate of fisheries in Mahshahr for official cooperation.

Funding information

This work was funded by Tarbiat Modares University (TMU).

Supplementary material

11356_2017_432_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Table S1 (DOCX 16 kb)


  1. AFS (Annual fishery statistics of Iran) (2010) Consumption of fish in Iran. Ministry of Agriculture, Iran, pp 36–40Google Scholar
  2. Agah H, Leermakers M, Marc Elskens S, Fatemi MR, Baeyens W (2007) Total mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in fish from the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea. Water Air Soil Pollut 181(1–4):95–105Google Scholar
  3. Agah H, Leermakers M, Gao Y, Fatemi SMR et al (2010) Mercury accumulation in fish species from the Persian Gulf and in human hair from fishermen. Environ Monit Assess 169:203–216. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agusa T, Kunito T, Iwata I, Monirith I, Tana TS, Subramanian A, Tanabe S (2005) Mercury contamination in human hair and fish from Cambodia: levels, specific accumulation and risk assessment. J Environ Pollut 134:79–86. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alberta Health and Wellness (2009) Human health risk assessment mercury in fish in central Alberta Lac la Nonne and Lac Ste Anne. ISBN: 978-0-7785-7428-6 (Online).Google Scholar
  6. Al-Majed NB, Preston MR (2000) Factors influencing the total mercury and methyl mercury in the hair of the fishermen of Kuwait. J Environ Pollut 109(2):239–250. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Reasi HA, Fuad AA, Lean DR (2007) Evaluating mercury biomagnification in fish from a tropical marine environment using stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N). Environ Toxicol Chem 26(8):1572–1581. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Antonijevic B, Jankovic S, Curcic M, Durgo K, Stokic E, Srdic B, Tomic-Naglic D (2011) Risk characterization for mercury, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls associated with fish consumption in Serbia. Food Chem Toxicol 49(10):2586–2593. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Asefi M, Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi R (2015) Mercury concentrations and health risk assessment for two fish species, Barbus grypus and Barbus luteus, from the Maroon River, Khuzestan Province, Iran. Environ Monit Assess 187(10):653Google Scholar
  10. Bonsignore M, Salvagio Manta D, Oliveri E, Sprovieri M, Basilone G, Bonanno A, Falco F, Traina A, Mazzola S (2013) Mercury in fishes from Augusta Bay (Southern Italy): risk assessment and health implication. Food Chem Toxicol 56:148–194. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brodzka R, Trzcinka-Ochocka M (2009) Mercury in hair—an indicator of environmental exposure. Med Pr 60(4):303–314Google Scholar
  12. Burger J, Gochfeld M (2012) Selenium and mercury molar ratios in saltwater fish from New Jersey: individual and species variability complicate use in human health fish consumption advisories. Environ Res 114:12–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chan HM, Egeland GM (2004) Fish consumption, mercury exposure, and heart diseases. Nutr Rev 62:68–72. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang JY, Park JS, Shin S, Yang HR, Moon JS, Ko JS (2015) Mercury exposure in healthy Korean weaning-age infants: association with growth, feeding and fish intake. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:14669–14689. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen G, Chen X, Yan C, Wu X, Zeng G (2014) Surveying mercury levels in hair, blood and urine of under 7-year old children from a coastal city in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11:12029–12041. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheng H, Hu Y (2012) Understanding the paradox of mercury pollution in China: high concentrations in environmental matrix yet low levels in fish on the market. Environ Sci Technol 46:4695–4696. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cheng Z, Liang P, Shao DD, SC W, Nie XP et al (2011) Mercury biomagnification in the aquaculture pond ecosystem in the Pearl River Delta. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 61:491–499. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chien LC, Gao CS, Lin HH (2010) Hair mercury concentration and fish consumption: risk and perceptions of risk among women of childbearing age. Environ Res 110:123–129. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diez S, Montuori P, Pagano A, Sarnacchiaro P, Bayona JM, Triassi M (2008) Hair mercury levels in an urban population from southern Italy: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure. Environ Inter 34(2008):162–167. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Díez S, Esbrí JM, Tobias A, Higueras P, Martínez-Coronado A (2011) Determinants of exposure to mercury in hair from inhabitants of the largest mercury mine in the world. Chemosphere 84:571–577. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Domingo JL, Perelló G, Bordonaba JG (2012) Dietary intake of metals by the population of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain): results from a duplicate. Biol Trace Elem Res 146:420–425. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. EFSA (European and Food Safety Authority) (2004) Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to mercury and methylmercury in food (Request No. EFSA-Q-2003-030) (adopted on 24 February 2004). EFSA J 34:1–14Google Scholar
  23. Elahi M, Esmaili-Sari A, Bahramifar N (2012) Total mercury levels in selected tissues of some marine crustaceans from Persian Gulf, Iran: variations related to length, weight and sex. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88:60–64. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Esmaeili A (2006) Technical efficiency analysis for the Iranian fishery in the Persian Gulf. ICES J Mar Sci 63(9):1759–1764. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. European Commission (2004) Commission regulation no 466/2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuff. Off. J European Communities
  26. Fakour H, Esmaili-Sari A, Zayeri F (2010) Mercury exposure assessment in Iranian women’s hair of a port town with respect to fish consumption and amalgam fillings. Sci the Tot Environ 408(2010):1538–1543. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Faria M, Carrasco L, Diez S, Riva MC, Bayona JM, Barata C (2009) Multi-biomarker responses in the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha exposed to polychlorobiphenyls and metals. Comp Biochem Physiol C: Toxicol Pharmacol 149(3):281–288Google Scholar
  28. Farsi B, Seyfabadi J, Owfi F, Aramli MS (2015) Effect of environmental conditions on spatial distribution of macrobenthic community in the Bushehr Coasts of the Persian Gulf. Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 15:869–878. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. FDA (2004) Fish, shellfish, crustaceans and other aquatic animals—fresh, frozen or processed methylmercury.
  30. Freire C, Ramos R, Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Díez S, Vioque J, Ballester F, Fernández MF (2010) Hair mercury levels, fish consumption, and cognitive development in preschool children from Granada, Spain. Environ Res 110(1):96–104. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fuentes-Gandara F, Pinedo-Herna’ndez J, Marrugo-Negrete J, Dı’ez S (2016, 2016) Human health impacts of exposure to metals through extreme consumption of fish from the Colombian Caribbean Sea. Environ Geochem Health:1–14.
  32. GA (Government of Alberta) (2009) Human health risk assessment mercury in fish. Pine Coulee and Twin Valley water management projects Southern Alberta. Alberta Health and Wellness, October 2009.Google Scholar
  33. Giangrosso G, Cammilleri G, Macaluso A, Vella A, D’Orazio N, Graci S, LoDico GM, Galvano F, Giangrosso M, Ferrantelli V (2016) Hair mercury levels detection in fishermen from Sicily (Italy) by ICP-MS method after microwave-assisted digestion. Bioinorg Chem Appl:1–5.
  34. Gibb H, O’Leary KG, Sarkar SK, Wang J, Liguori L, Rainis H, Smith KA, Chatterjee M (2016) Hair mercury concentrations in residents of Sundarban and Calcutta, India. Environ Res 150:616–621. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Haratake M, Takahashi J, Ono M, Nakayama M (2007) An assessment of Niboshi (a processed Japanese anchovy) as an effective food source of selenium. J Health Sci 53:457–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Health Canada (2007) Human health risk assessment of mercury in fish and health benefits of fish consumption. ISBN: 978-0-662-47023-6.Google Scholar
  37. Iwasaki Y, Sakamoto M, Nakai K, Murata K (2003) Estimation of daily mercury intake from seafood in Japanese women: Akita cross-sectional study. Tohoku J Exp Med 200(2):67–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jalilian M, Dadollahi-Sohrab A, Nikpour Y (2011) Distribution and contamination of mercury in Metapenaeus affinis shrimp and sediments from Musa Creek (northwestern part of the Persian Gulf), I.R Iran. World J Fish and Mar Sci 3:227–231Google Scholar
  39. JECFA (2014) Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants (sixty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Available online: ( (accessed on 24 August 2014).
  40. Kannan K et al (1998) Distribution of total mercury and methyl mercury in water, sediment, and fish from South Florida estuaries. Arch Environ Contamin Toxicol 34:109–118. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Karagas MR, Choi AL, Oken E, Horvat M, Schoeny R, Kamai E, Cowell W, Grandjean P, Korrick S (2012) Evidence on the human health effects of low-level methylmercury exposure. Environ Health Perspect 120:799–806. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Khan MA, Wang F (2009) Mercury-selenium compounds and their toxicological significance: toward a molecular understanding of the mercury-selenium antagonism. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:1567–1577. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Khoshnood R, Jaafarzadeh N, Khoshnood Z, Ahmadi M, Teymouri P (2014) Estimation of target hazard quotients for metals by consumption of fish in the north coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran. J Adv Environ Health Res 2(4):263–272Google Scholar
  44. Knobeloch L, Gliori G, Anderson H (2007) Assessment of methyl mercury exposure in Wisconsin. Environ Res 103:205–210. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kosatsky T, Przybysz R, Armstrong B (2000) Mercury exposure in Montrealers who eat St. Lawrence River sport fish. Environ Res 84:36–43. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kruzikova K, Kensova R, Blahova J, Harustiakova D, Svobodova Z (2009) Using human hair as an indicator for exposure to mercury. Neuroendocrinol Lett 30(1):177Google Scholar
  47. Lando AM, Fein SB, Choiniére CJ (2012) Awareness of methylmercury in fish and fish consumption among pregnant and postpartum women and women of childbearing age in the United States. Environ Res 116:85–92. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lémire M, Fillion M, Frenette B, Mayer A, Philibert A, Passos CJS, Guimarães JRD, Barbosa F Jr, Mergler D (2010) Selenium and mercury in the Brazilian Amazon: opposing influences on age-related cataracts. Environ Health Perspect 118(11):1584–1589. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li P, Feng X, Qiu G (2010) Methylmercury exposure and health effects from rice and fish consumption: a review. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7:2666–2691. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Li P, Feng XB, Liang P, Chan HM, Yan HY, Chen LG (2013) Mercury in seafood and human exposure in coastal area of Guangdong Province, South China. Environ Toxicol Chem 32:541–547. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lincoln RA, Shine JP, Chesney EJ, Vorhees DJ, Grandjean P, Senn DB (2011a) Fish consumption and mercury exposure among Louisiana recreational anglers. Environ Health Perspect 2:245–251. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lincoln RA, Shine JP, Chesney EJ, Vorhees DJ, Grandjean P, Senn DB (2011b) Fish consumption and mercury exposure among Louisiana recreational anglers. Environ Health Perspect 119:245–251. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liu X, Cheng J, Yuling S, Honda S, Wang L, Liu Z et al (2008) Mercury concentration in hair samples from Chinese people in coastal cities. J Environ Sci (China) 20:1258–1262. (08)62218-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liu JL, Xu XR, Yu S, Cheng H, Peng JX, Hongd YG, Fenge XB (2014) Mercury contamination in fish and human hair from Hainan Island, South China Sea: implications for human exposure. Environmental Research 135(2014):42–47. 2014.08.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Maghtouie AH, Neissi G, Nasseri S, Gholaminezhad E, Shalamzari N, Nikpour Y (2011) Determination of mercury in mullet fish (Liza abu) from Arvand River, Iran. World J Fish and Mar Sci 3(6):514–517Google Scholar
  56. Magos L, Clarkson TW (2008) The assessment of the contribution of hair to methyl mercury excretion. Toxicol Lett 182:48–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Malakootian M, Mortazavi MS, Ahmadi A (2016) Heavy metals bioaccumulation in fish of southern Iran and risk assessment of fish consumption. Environ Health Engin and Manage J 3(2):61–68.  10.15171/EHEM.2016.02 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Malvandi H, Ghasempouri SM, Esmaili-Sari A, Bahramifar N (2010) Evaluation of the suitability of application of golden jackal (Canis aureus) hair as a noninvasive technique for determination of body burden mercury. Ecotoxicology 19(6):997–1002. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Manceau A, Enescu M, Simionovici A, Lanson M, Gonzalez-Rey M, Rovezzi M, Tucoulou R, Glatzel P, Nagy KL, Bourdineaud JP (2016) Chemical forms of mercury in human hair reveal sources of exposure. Environ Sci Technol 50(19):10721–10729. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Marcotrigiano GO, Storelli MM (2003) Heavy metal, polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide residues in marine organisms: risk evaluation for consumers. Vet Res Commun 27:183–195. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Marrugo-Negrete J, Benitez L, Olivero-Verbel J (2008) Distribution of mercury in several environmental compartments in an aquatic ecosystem impacted by gold mining in Northern Colombia. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 55:305–316. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Marrugo-Negrete JL, Ruiz-Guzmán JA, Díez S (2013) Relationship between mercury levels in hair and fish consumption in a population living near a hydroelectric tropical dam. Biol Trace Elem Res 151:187–194. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Martorell I, Perelló G, Martí-Cid R, Llobet JM, Castell V, Domingo JL (2011) Human exposure to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead from foods in Catalonia, Spain: temporal trend. Biol Trace Elem Res 142:309–322. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mergler D, Anderson HA, Chan LHM, Mahaffey KR, Murray M, Sakamoto M et al (2007) Methylmercury exposure and health effects in humans: a worldwide concern. Ambio 36(1):3–11.[3:MEAHEI]2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Michalak I, Chojnacka K, Saeid A, Mikulewicz M (2014) Research on mercury levels in scalp hair. Pol J Environ Stud 23(3):793–800. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Moallem S, Karimi G, Khayyat MH, Bozorgi M, Nili-Ahmadabadi A, Nazari F (2010) Exposure assessment for mercury from consumption of marine fish in Iran. Toxicol Environ Chem 92(6):1213–1218. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Morgan JN, Berry MR, Graves RL (1997) Effects of commonly used cooking practices on total mercury concentration in fish and their impact on exposure assessments. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 7:119–133Google Scholar
  68. Mortada WI, Sobh MA, El-Defrawy MM, Farahat SE (2002) Reference intervals of cadmium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, hair, and nails among residents in Mansoura City, Nile Delta, Egypt. Environ Res 90:104–110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mortazavi MS, Sharifian S (2011) Mercury bioaccumulation in some commercially valuable marine organisms from Mosa Bay, Persian Gulf. Int J Environ Res 5(3):757–762Google Scholar
  70. Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB (2006) Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefits. JAMA 296:1885–1899. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nair A, Jordan M, Watkins S, Washam R, DuClos C, Jones S, Palcic J, Pawlowicz M, Blackmor C (2014) Fish consumption and hair mercury levels in women of childbearing age, Martin County, Florida. Matern Child Health J 18(10):2352–2361. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Okati N, Esmaili-Sari A, Ghasempouri SM (2012) Hair mercury concentrations of lactating mothers and breastfed infants in Iran (fish consumption and mercury exposure). Biol Trace Elem Res 149(2):155–162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Olivero J, Johnson B, Arguello E (2002) Human exposure to mercury in San Jorge river basin, Colombia (South America). Sci Total Environ 289:41–47. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Olivero-Verbel J, Carranza-Lopez L, Caballero-Gallardo K, Ripoll-Arboleda A, Muñoz-Sosa D (2016) Human exposure and risk assessment associated with mercury pollution in the Caqueta River, Colombian Amazon. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(20):20761–20771. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Raissy M, Rahimi E, Nadeali V, Ansari M, Shakerian A (2014) Mercury and arsenic in green tiger shrimp from the Persian Gulf. Toxicol Ind Health 30(3):206–210. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ralston NVC (2009) Introduction to 2nd issue on special topic: selenium and mercury as interactive environmental indicators. Environ Bioindic 4:286–290. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ralston NVC, Ralston CR, Blackwell JL, Raymond LJ (2008) Dietary and tissue selenium in relation to methylmercury toxicity. NeuroToxicology 29(5):802–811Google Scholar
  78. Renieri EA, Alegakis AK, Kiriakakis M, Vinceti M, Ozcagli E, Wilks MF, Tsatsakis AM (2014) Cd, Pb and Hg biomonitoring in fish of the Mediterranean region and risk estimations on fish consumption. Toxics 2:417–442. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rose M, Fernandes A, Mortimer D, Baskaran C (2015) Contamination of fish in UK fresh water systems: risk assessment for human consumption. Chemosphere 122:183–189. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ruggieri F, Majorani C, Domanico F, Alimonti A (2017) Mercury in children: current state on exposure through human biomonitoring studies. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14(5):519. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Safahieh A, Abdolahpur Monikh F, Savari A (2011) Heavy metals contamination in sediment and sole fish (Euryglossa orientalis) from Musa estuary (Persian Gulf). W J Fish Mar Sci 3:290–297Google Scholar
  82. Safahieh A, Babadi S, Nabavi SMB, Ronagh MT, Ghanemi K (2013) Assessment of mercury intake through consumption of yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) from Musa Estuary. JOLST 1(2):142–146.  10.12720/jolst.1.2.142-146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Santos ECO, Camara VM, Jesus IM, Brabo ES, Loureiro ECB et al (2002) A contribution to the establishment of reference values for total mercury levels in hair and fish in Amazonia. Environ Res 90:6–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schaefer AM, Jensen EL, Bossart GD, Reif JS (2014) Hair mercury concentrations and fish consumption patterns in Florida residents. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11(7):6709–6726. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shao D, Kang Y, Cheng Z, Wang H, Huang M, Wu S, Chen K, Wong MH (2013) Hair mercury levels and food consumption in residents from the Pearl River Delta: South China. Food Chem 136(2):682–688. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Storelli MM (2008) Potential human health risks from metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) via seafood consumption: estimation of target hazard quotients (THQs) and toxic equivalents (TEQs). Food Chem Toxicol 46:2782–2788. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sysalová J, Kučera J, Fikrle M, Drtinová B (2013) Determination of the total mercury in contaminated soils by direct solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry using an AMA-254 device and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Microchem J 110:691–694. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Thapa DS, Sharma CM, Kang S, Sillanpää M (2014) The risk of mercury exposure to the people consuming fish from lake Phewa, Nepal. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11:6771–6779. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Torres-Escribano S, Vélez D, Montoro R (2010) Mercury and methylmercury bioaccessibility in swordfish. Food Addit Contam 27(3):327–337. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. UNEP (2008) Guidance for identifying populations at risk from mercury exposure. Issued by UNEP DTIE Chemicals Branch and WHO Department of Food Safety, Zoonoses and Foodborne Diseases, Geneva, Switzerland.
  91. USEPA (2000) Guidance for assessing chemical contaminant data for use in fish advisories, volume 2: risk assessment and fish consumption limits, 3rd edition. United States Environ. Prot. Agency, Washington, DC 1, (823-NaN-00–008)Google Scholar
  92. USEPA (2001a) Mercury update: impact on fish advisories. EPA-823-F-01-011. Office of Water, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  93. USEPA (2001b) Water quality criterion for the protection of human health: methylmercury, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  94. USEPA (2005) Water quality criterion for the protection of human health: methylmercury [cited 29 June 2005]. Available from:
  95. USEPA (2009) The national study of chemical residues in lake fish tissue, EPA-823-R-09-006. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  96. USEPA (2013) Mercury: health effects. Retrieved from:
  97. Vahabzadeh M, Balali-Mood M, Mousavi SR, Moradi V, Mokhtari M, Riahi-Zanjani B (2013) Mercury contamination of fish and shrimp samples available in markets of Mashhad, Iran. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 91(3):267–271. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vieira SM, de Almeida R, Holanda IB, Mussy MH, Galvão RC, Crispim PT, Dórea JG, Bastos WR (2013) Total and methyl-mercury in hair and milk of mothers living in the city of Porto Velho and in villages along the Rio Madeira, Amazon, Brazil (2013). Int J Hyg Environ Health 216:682–689. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Voegborlo R, Matsuyama A, Adimado A, Akagi H (2010) Head hair total mercury and methylmercury levels in some Ghanaian individuals for the estimation of their exposure to mercury: preliminary studies. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84:34–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. World Health Organization (2010) Children’s exposure to mercury compounds. Available online: http: //wwwwhoint/ceh/publications/children_exposure/en/indexhtml (accessed on 23 February 2017).
  101. Yamashita Y, Yamashita M, Iida H (2013) Selenium content in seafood in Japan. Nutrients 5:388–395. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Yan H, Rustadbakken A, Yao H, Larssen T, Feng X, Liu T, Shang L, Haugen TO (2010) Total mercury in wild fish in Guizhou reservoirs, China. J Environ Sci (China) 22(8):1129–1136. (09)60228 –X. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yasutake A, Matsumoto M, Yamaguchi M, Hachiya N (2004) Current hair mercury levels in Japanese for estimation of methylmercury exposure. J Helth Sci 50(2):120–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. YI Y, Wang Z, Zhang K, Yu G, Duan X (2008) Sediment pollution and its effect on fish through food chain in the Yangtze River. Int J Sediment Res 23:338–347. (09)60005-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zillioux EJ (2015) Mercury in fish: history, sources, pathways, effects, and indicator usage, environmental indicators. Springer, pp 743–766.Google Scholar
  106. Zolfaghari G, Esmaili-Sari A, Ghsempouri SM, Faghihzadeh S (2007) Evaluation of environmental and occupational exposure to mercury among Iranian dentists. Sci Total Environ 381:59–67. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine ScienceTarbiat Modares UniversityNoorIran

Personalised recommendations