Removal of industrial dyes and heavy metals by Beauveria bassiana: FTIR, SEM, TEM and AFM investigations with Pb(II)

Abstract

Presence of industrial dyes and heavy metal as a contaminant in environment poses a great risk to human health. In order to develop a potential technology for remediation of dyes (Reactive remazol red, Yellow 3RS, Indanthrene blue and Vat novatic grey) and heavy metal [Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI) and Pb(II)] contamination, present study was performed with entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (MTCC no. 4580). High dye removal (88–97%) was observed during the growth of B. bassiana while removal percentage for heavy metals ranged from 58 to 75%. Further, detailed investigations were performed with Pb(II) in terms of growth kinetics, effect of process parameters and mechanism of removal. Growth rate decreased from 0.118 h−1 (control) to 0.031 h−1, showing 28% reduction in biomass at 30 mg L−1 Pb(II) with 58.4% metal removal. Maximum Pb(II) removal was observed at 30 °C, neutral pH and 30 mg L−1 initial metal concentration. FTIR analysis indicated the changes induced by Pb(II) in functional groups on biomass surface. Further, microscopic analysis (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM)) was performed to understand the changes in cell surface morphology of the fungal cell. SEM micrograph showed a clear deformation of fungal hyphae, whereas AFM studies proved the increase in surface roughness (RSM) in comparison to control cell. Homogenous bioaccumulation of Pb(II) inside the fungal cell was clearly depicted by TEM-high-angle annular dark field coupled with EDX. Present study provides an insight into the mechanism of Pb(II) bioremediation and strengthens the significance of using entomopathogenic fungus such as B. bassiana for metal and dye removal.

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Acknowledgements

Vardhaman Textile Ltd., India is acknowledged for providing the industrial dyes. The authors appreciate the assistance provided by Mr. Vinod Kumar and Mr. Sabal Singh (Project staff, IIT Delhi) during the experiments. Dr. Sreedevi Upadhyayula (Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Delhi), Dr. Deepak Varandani (Department of Physics, IIT Delhi) and Mr. D. C. Sharma (Department of Textile Engineering, IIT Delhi) are also acknowledged for their kind technical support in FTIR, AFM and SEM analyses, respectively.

Funding

The authors gratefully acknowledge Water Technology Initiative, Department of Science and Technology [Grant no. DST/TM/WTI/2K15/167 (G)], Govt. of India for financial support.

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Correspondence to Anushree Malik.

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Responsible editor: Guilherme L. Dotto

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Gola, D., Malik, A., Namburath, M. et al. Removal of industrial dyes and heavy metals by Beauveria bassiana: FTIR, SEM, TEM and AFM investigations with Pb(II). Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 20486–20496 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0246-1

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Keywords

  • Dye
  • Heavy metal
  • Beauveria bassiana
  • SEM
  • AFM
  • FTIR