No effect of insect repellents on the behaviour of Lymnaea stagnalis at environmentally relevant concentrations
Insect repellents are widely applied to various materials and to both human and animal skin to deter mosquitoes and ticks. The most common deterrent compounds applied are DEET, EBAAP and icaridin (picaridin, Bayrepel). Due to their extensive application, these repellents are frequently detected in surface waters in considerable concentrations. As these compounds are designed to alter invertebrates’ behaviour rather than to intoxicate them, we hypothesised that insect repellents have the potential to modify the natural behaviour of non-target invertebrates in natural freshwater bodies. To test this, we used a well-established laboratory assay designed to quantify the odour-mediated foraging behaviour of freshwater gastropods and the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Linnaeus, 1758) as a model organism to test for potential deterrent effects of insect repellents on aquatic snails. Using a wide concentration range from the picogramme per litre to microgramme per litre range (and by far exceeding the range of concentrations reported from natural waters), we found no evidence for a deterrent effect of either of the three repellents on foraging L. stagnalis. Our data and other recent studies give no indication for undesirable behavioural alterations by common insect repellents in surface waters.
KeywordsDEET EBAAP Food searching Gastropoda Icaridin Infochemicals Semiochemicals
We would like to thank Jana Moelzner, Nicole Roth and Daniel Schaefer for excellent laboratory assistance and Ruediger Berghahn for helpful suggestions. Icaridin (Saltidin) was kindly provided by Saltigo, Leverkusen, Germany.
This research was funded through FuE grant FKZ3712 67 417 2 of the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt) to PF and EvE.
- R Core Team (2014) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
- ECHA -European Chemicals Agency (2016) Biocidal active substances. http://echa.europa.eu/web/guest/information-on-chemicals/biocidal-active-substances
- European Commission (2010) CIRCABC Communication and Information Resource Centre for Administrations, Businesses and Citizens. https://circabc.europa.eu
- Knepper TP (2004a) Analysis and fate of insect repellents. Water Sci Technol 50:301–308Google Scholar
- Knepper TP (2004b) Analysis and mass spectrometric characterization of the insect repellent Bayrepel and its main metabolite Bayrepel-acid. J Chromatogr A 1046:159–166Google Scholar
- Lürling M (2012) Infodisruption: pollutants interfering with the natural chemical information conveyance in aquatic systems. In: Brönmark C, Hansson L-A (eds) Chemical ecology in aquatic systems. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar