Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 30, pp 23850–23863 | Cite as

Bacillus safensis with plant-derived smoke stimulates rice growth under saline conditions

  • Muhammad Hafeez Ullah Khan
  • Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak
  • Muhammad Jamil
  • Ijaz Malook
  • Shahid Ullah Khan
  • Mehmood Jan
  • Ismail Din
  • Shah Saud
  • Muhammad Kamran
  • Hesham Alharby
  • Shah Fahad
Research Article


Salinity is a worldwide environmental problem of agricultural lands. Smoke and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) are individually used to improve plant growth, but the combined effects of these have not been studied yet under saline conditions. The combined effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria Bacillus safensis and plant-derived smoke Cymbopogon jwarancusa was studied under different salinity level as 50, 100, and 150 mM on rice (cv. Basmati-385). Smoke dilutions of C. jwarancusa (C-500 and C-1000) and bacterial culture of B. safensis were used to soak seeds for 10 h. It was observed that the salt concentration decreases the germination percentage, vegetative growth, ion contents (K+ and Ca2+), and photosynthetic pigments (Chl “a,” Chl “b,” and carotene) while an increase occurred in Na+, total soluble protein (TSP), proline, total soluble sugar, catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) contents. The combined effect of B. safensis and smoke primed seeds increased the germination percentage, seedling growth, ion contents (K+, Ca2+), and photosynthetic pigments (Chl “a,” Chl “b,” carotene) and reduced the Na+ ion content, total soluble protein, proline content, total soluble sugar, CAT, and POD activity by lowering the drastic effect of salt stress. It was concluded that combined effect of smoke and PGPR is more effective than individual effect.


Salinity Bacillus safensis Smoke Biochemical Antioxidant activities Ion contents 



This study was funded by Higher Education Commission through grant No. 1348.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Hafeez Ullah Khan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak
    • 1
  • Muhammad Jamil
    • 3
  • Ijaz Malook
    • 3
  • Shahid Ullah Khan
    • 2
  • Mehmood Jan
    • 4
  • Ismail Din
    • 1
  • Shah Saud
    • 5
  • Muhammad Kamran
    • 6
  • Hesham Alharby
    • 7
  • Shah Fahad
    • 2
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Bioinformatics & BiotechnologyInternational Islamic University IslamabadIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.College of Plant Science and TechnologyHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  3. 3.Department of Biotechnology & Genetic engineeringKohat University of Science & TechnologyKohatPakistan
  4. 4.Zhejiang University HangzhouHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.College of HorticultureNortheast Agricultural University HarbinHeilongjiangChina
  6. 6.College of AgronomyNorthwest Agriculture and Forestry University YanglingShaanxiChina
  7. 7.Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of ScienceKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  8. 8.Department of AgricultureUniversity of SwabiKhyber PakhtunkhwaPakistan

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