Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 3363–3374 | Cite as

Evaluation of coarse and fine particles in diverse Indian environments

  • K.V. George
  • Dinakar D. Patil
  • Mulukutla N.V. Anil
  • Neel Kamal
  • Babu J. Alappat
  • Prashant Kumar
Research Article


The estimates of airborne fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations are possible through rigorous empirical correlations based on the monitored PM10 data. However, such correlations change depending on the nature of sources in diverse ambient environments and, therefore, have to be environment specific. Studies presenting such correlations are limited but needed, especially for those areas, where PM2.5 is not routinely monitored. Moreover, there are a number of studies focusing on urban environments but very limited for coal mines and coastal areas. The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the concentrations of both PM10 and PM2.5 and develop empirical correlations between them. Data from 26 different sites spread over three distinct environments, which are a relatively clean coastal area, two coal mining areas, and a highly urbanized area in Delhi were used for the study. Distributions of PM in the 0.43–10-μm size range were measured using eight-stage cascade impactors. Regression analysis was used to estimate the percentage of PM2.5 in PM10 across distinct environments for source identification. Relatively low percentage of PM2.5 concentrations (21, 28, and 32%) in PM10 were found in clean coastal and two mining areas, respectively. Percentage of PM2.5 concentrations in PM10 in the highly urbanized area of Delhi was 51%, indicating a presence of a much higher percentage of fine particles due to vehicular combustion in Delhi. The findings of this work are important in estimating concentrations of much harmful fine particles from coarse particles across distinct environments. The results are also useful in source identification of particulates as differences in the percentage of PM2.5 concentrations in PM10 can be attributed to characteristics of sources in the diverse ambient environments.


PM10 PM2.5 Cascade impactor Coal mining Urban areas Exposure risks 

Supplementary material

11356_2016_8049_MOESM1_ESM.docx (20 kb)
Table S1(DOCX 20.0 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Air Pollution Control DivisionNational Environmental Engineering Research InstituteNagpurIndia
  2. 2.Environmental Manager, Aditya Birla Group, JafarabadGujaratIndia
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyDelhiIndia
  4. 4.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical SciencesUniversity of SurreyGuildfordU.K.
  5. 5.Environmental Flow (EnFlo) Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering and Physical SciencesUniversity of SurreyGuildfordU.K.

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