Solar photocatalytic degradation of 2-chlorophenol with ZnO nanoparticles: optimisation with D-optimal design and study of intermediate mechanisms
- 264 Downloads
In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of toxic pollutant (2-chlorophenol) in the presence of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was investigated under solar radiation. The three main factors, namely pH of solution, solar intensity and calcination temperature, were selected in order to examine their effects on the efficiency of the degradation process. The response surface methodology (RSM) technique based on D-optimal design was applied to optimise the process. ANOVA analysis showed that solar intensity and calcination temperature were the two significant factors for degradation efficiency. The optimum conditions in the model were solar intensity at 19.8 W/m2, calcination temperature at 404 °C and pH of 6.0. The maximum degradation efficiency was predicted to be 90.5% which was in good agreement with the actual experimental value of 93.5%. The fit of the D-optimal design correlated very well with the experimental results with higher values of R 2 and R 2 adj correlation coefficients of 0.9847 and 0.9676, respectively. The intermediate mechanism behaviour of the 2-chlorophenol degradation process was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results confirmed that 2-chlorophenol was converted to acetic acid, a non-toxic compound.
Keywords2-chlorophenol Photocatalytic ZnO NPs D-optimal design
The authors wish to thank the Research Centre for Sustainable Process Technology (CESPRO), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for supporting this study under project PKT-6/2012, iconic-2014-004 and NPRP grant no. [5-1425-2-607] from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). Muneer M. Ba-Abbad is also grateful to the Hadhramout University of Science & Technology, Yemen for financial support of his PhD.
- Ba-Abbad MM, Chai PV, Takriff MS, Benamor A, Mohammad AW (2015) Optimization of nickel oxide nanoparticle synthesis through the sol–gel method using Box–Behnken design. Mater Des 86:948–956Google Scholar
- Ba-Abbad MM, Kadhum AH, Mohamad AB, Takriff MS, Sopian K (2012) Synthesis and catalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles for photochemical oxidation of concentrated chlorophenols under direct solar radiation. Inter J Electrochem Sci 7:4871–4888Google Scholar
- Box J, Hunter S, Hunter WG (2005) Statistics for experimenters: design, innovation, and discovery, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., HobokenGoogle Scholar
- Chung YT, Ba-Abbad MM, Mohammad AW, Hairom NH, Benamor A (2015) Synthesis of minimal-size ZnO nanoparticles through sol–gel method: Taguchi design optimization. Mater Des 87:780–787Google Scholar
- Douglas CM (2009) Design and analysis of experiments, 7th edn. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Myers RH, Montgomery DC (2002) Response surface methodology, process and products optimization using designed experiments. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Ram M, Andreescu ES, Hanming D (2011) Nanotechnology for environmental decontamination. McGraw Hill Professional, New York CityGoogle Scholar
- US EPA (2006) National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants: miscellaneous organic chemical manufacturing. United States Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar