Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 1532–1543 | Cite as

Individual and combined effect of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin on reproductive system of adult male albino rats

  • Eman Ahmad Alaa-EldinEmail author
  • Dalia Abdallah El-Shafei
  • Nehal S. Abouhashem
Research Article


Commercial mixtures of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin pesticides are widely used to enhance the toxic effects of cypermethrin on target insects. So, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the individual and combined toxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cypermethrin (CYP) on reproductive system of adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were randomized into main four groups: group I (control group) included 16 rats, subdivided into negative and positive control; group II (eight rats) received chlorpyrifos 6.75 mg/kg b.w./orally∕daily); group III (eight rats) (received cypermethrin 12.5 mg/kg b.w./orally∕daily); and group IV (eight rats) (received chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin at the same previously mentioned doses). All treatments were given by oral gavage for 12 weeks. We found that single CPF and CYP exposures significantly have adverse effects on reproductive function of adult male albino rats manifested by reduced testicular weight, decreased sperm count, motility and viability, significantly increased percent of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa, and significant increments in sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) with respect to control group. Furthermore, serum follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone levels were decreased significantly compared to control group. This was accompanied with histopathological changes in the testis of rats such as necrosis, degeneration, decreasing number of spermatogenic cells in some seminiferous tubules, edema, congested blood vessels, and exudate in interstitial tissue of the testis. Notably, all these changes were exaggerated in rats treated concomitantly with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin rendering the mixture more toxic than the additive effects of each compound and causing greater damage on the reproductive system of male albino rats than the individual pesticides.


Pesticides Organophosphorus Pyrethroids Chlorpyrifos Cypermethrin Reproductive toxicity 



Sincere appreciation is expressed to Prof./Dr. Mai Samir for her valuable guidance and to all members in the Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology Department for their encouragement.

Compliance with ethical standards

The experiment was carried out in compliance with the “Guide of the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” (Clark et al., 1996) and the institutional guidelines for the care and use of experimental animals approved by the Medical Research Ethics Committee of Zagazig University, Egypt.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


There is no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eman Ahmad Alaa-Eldin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dalia Abdallah El-Shafei
    • 2
  • Nehal S. Abouhashem
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical ToxicologyZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community, Environmental and Occupational MedicineZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  3. 3.Faculty of Medicine, Department of PathologyZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

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