Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 765–781 | Cite as

The effects of ocean acidification and a carbon dioxide capture and storage leak on the early life stages of the marine mussel Perna perna (Linneaus, 1758) and metal bioavailability

  • D. SzalajEmail author
  • M. R. De Orte
  • T. A. Goulding
  • I. D. Medeiros
  • T. A. DelValls
  • A. Cesar
Research Article


The study assesses the effects of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) leaks and ocean acidification (OA) on the metal bioavailability and reproduction of the mytilid Perna perna. In laboratory-scale experiments, CCS leakage scenarios (pH 7.0, 6.5, 6.0) and one OA (pH 7.6) scenario were tested using metal-contaminated sediment elutriates and seawater from Santos Bay. The OA treatment did not have an effect on fertilisation, while significant effects were observed in larval-development bioassays where only 16 to 27 % of larva developed normally. In treatments that simulated CO2 leaks, when compared with control, fertilisation success gradually decreased and no larva developed to the D-shaped stage. A fall in pH increased the bioavailability of metals to marine mussels. Larva shell size was significantly affected by both elutriates when compared with seawater; moreover, a significant difference occurred at pH 6.5 between elutriates in the fertilisation bioassay.


Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) Ocean acidification (OA) Climate change Metal bioavailability Marine mussel Early life stages 



The first author thanks the Erasmus Mundus Programme for the Master Fellowship. M.R. De Orte thanks the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) for the postdoctoral fellowship granted under process 2014/22273-1. A. Cesar thanks the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq PQ no. 305869/2013-2) for the productivity fellowships awarded. A. DelValls thanks Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES-CNPq) for the visiting professor fellowships awarded within science without borders program. The work was funded by the Brazilian Government as the part of the project: CAPES PVE 126/2012 (CNPq no. 402921/2012-7). Additionally, it has been partially supported by grant CTM2012-36476-C02-01-02 funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. The authors showed gratitude to Dr. C.D.S Pereira who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted the research. The authors thank J. Gaspar and Dr. M.D. Basallote for their assistance in the performance of the bioassays. Moreover, we are grateful to the fishing club in Santos for mussel sampling permission and University of Santa Cecília (UNISANTA) ecotoxicology laboratory group for their logistical support. Also, we would like to thank the anonymous reviewers whose comments and revision substantially contribute to the improvement of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Web references

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  2. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (2015) Earth System Research Laboratory. (Viewed: 4th March 2015)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Szalaj
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • M. R. De Orte
    • 1
  • T. A. Goulding
    • 3
  • I. D. Medeiros
    • 1
  • T. A. DelValls
    • 3
  • A. Cesar
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Ciências do Mar. Instituto do Mar, Campus Baixada SantistaUniversidade Federal de São PauloSantosBrazil
  2. 2.Faculdade de Ciências, Instituto Dom LuizUniversidade de LisboaCampo GrandePortugal
  3. 3.Departamento de Química-Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de CádizUNESCO/UNITWIN WicopCádizSpain

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