Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 20, pp 20131–20150 | Cite as

Remediation of metalliferous mines, revegetation challenges and emerging prospects in semi-arid and arid conditions

  • Ramkrishna NirolaEmail author
  • Mallavarapu Megharaj
  • Simon Beecham
  • Rupak Aryal
  • Palanisami Thavamani
  • Kadiyala Vankateswarlu
  • Christopher Saint
Review Article


Understanding plant behaviour in polluted soils is critical for the sustainable remediation of metal-polluted sites including abandoned mines. Post-operational and abandoned metal mines particularly in semi-arid and arid zones are one of the major sources of pollution by soil erosion or plant hyperaccumulation bringing ecological impacts. We have selected from the literature 157 species belonging to 50 families to present a global overview of ‘plants under action’ against heavy metal pollution. Generally, all species of plants that are drought, salt and metal tolerant are candidates of interest to deal with harsh environmental conditions, particularly at semi-arid and arid mine sites. Pioneer metallophytes namely Atriplex nummularia, Atriplex semibaccata, Salsola kali, Phragmites australis and Medicago sativa, representing the taxonomic orders Caryophyllales, Poales and Fabales are evaluated in terms of phytoremediation in this review. Phytoremediation processes, microbial and algal bioremediation, the use and implication of tissue culture and biotechnology are critically examined. Overall, an integration of available remediation plant-based technologies, referred to here as ‘integrated remediation technology,’ is proposed to be one of the possible ways ahead to effectively address problems of toxic heavy metal pollution.

Graphical abstract

Integrated remediation technology (IRT) in metal-contaminated semi-arid and arid conditions. The hexagonal red line represents an IRT concept based on remediation decisions by combination of plants and microbial processes.


Heavy metals Metallophytes Plant systematics Revegetation Bioremediation Semi-arid and arid 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramkrishna Nirola
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Mallavarapu Megharaj
    • 2
  • Simon Beecham
    • 3
  • Rupak Aryal
    • 3
  • Palanisami Thavamani
    • 2
  • Kadiyala Vankateswarlu
    • 4
  • Christopher Saint
    • 3
  1. 1.Future Industries Institute, Division of Information Technology, Engineering and the EnvironmentUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER)University of NewcastleNewcastleAustralia
  3. 3.Natural & Built Environments Research Centre, Division of Information Technology, Engineering and the EnvironmentUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  4. 4.Faculty of Life SciencesSri Krishnadevaraya UniversityAnantapurIndia

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