Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 17, pp 17413–17425 | Cite as

Changes in bryophyte and lichen communities on Scots pines along an alkaline dust pollution gradient

Research Article

Abstract

Dust pollution can cause a significant damage of environment and endanger human health. Our study aimed to investigate epiphytic lichens and bryophytes in relation to long-term alkaline dust pollution and provide new insights into the bioindicators of dust pollution. We measured the bark pH of Scots pines and the species richness and cover of two cryptogam groups in 32 sample plots in the vicinity of limestone quarries (up to ca. 3 km) in northern Estonia. The bark pH decreased gradually with increasing distance from quarries. We recorded the changes in natural epiphytic communities, resulting in diversified artificial communities on pines near the pollution source; the distance over 2 km from the quarries was sufficient to re-establish the normal acidity of the bark and natural communities of both lichens and bryophytes. The cover of lichens and the number of bryophytes are a more promising indicator of environmental conditions than individual species occurrence. We confirmed previously proposed and suggested new bioindicator species of dust pollution (e.g., Lecidella elaeochroma, Opegrapha varia, Schistidium apocarpum). Limestone quarrying activity revealed a “parapositive” impact on cryptogamic communities, meaning that quarrying might, besides disturbances of natural communities, temporarily contribute to the distribution of locally rare species.

Keywords

Particulate matter Air pollution Lichens Bryophytes Limestone quarries Bioindication Monitoring Rare species 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Polina Degtjarenko
    • 1
  • Liis Marmor
    • 1
  • Tiina Randlane
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Ecology and Earth SciencesUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia

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