Ecological risk assessment of heavy metal (HM) pollution in the ambient air using a new bio-indicator
- 397 Downloads
The aim of this descriptive-analytical study was to measure the concentration of heavy metals (HMs) in the leaf and bark of Ulmus carpinifolia as new biological indicators, and the ecological risk assessment of these metals in the ambient air. To achieve these goals, 48 sampling locations were selected in the city and concentration of four HMs—zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd)—was measured in the mentioned indicator using atomic absorption spectroscopy method. After this, ecological risk assessment, source appointment, and spatial distribution were conducted. In this regard, the enrichment factor (EF), potential ecological risk factor (E r), potential ecological risk index (RI), correlation coefficient (r), and other indices were calculated. The results showed that the concentration of HMs in the leaf and bark in ascending order is as Cd<Cu<Pb<Zn and Cd<Pb<Cu<Zn, respectively. The EF results indicated that the main origin of all measured HMs except Zn is anthropogenic sources. Also, the principal component analysis (PCA) and spatial distribution proved that the concentration of HMs is mainly originated from the traffic and other human activities. On the other hand, the results RI presented that the majority of locations sampled in the study area was exposed to serious ecological risk in terms of surveyed HMs. The leaf and bark of U. carpinifolia can be applied as bio-indicators of the presence of heavy metals in the ambient air and ecological risk imposed by them.
KeywordsHeavy metals (HMs) Bio-indicator Ulmus carpinifolia Ecological risk assessment Ambient air
The authors acknowledge the School of Public Health laboratories, Yazd University of Medical Science, and all those who helped us in this research.
- Abdel-Ghaffar F, Abdel-Gaber R, Bashtar A-R, Morsy K, Mehlhorn H, Al Quraishy S, Saleh R (2015) Hysterothylacium aduncum (Nematoda, Anisakidae) with a new host record from the common sole Solea solea (Soleidae) and its role as a biological indicator of pollution. Parasitol Res 114:513–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Birch GF, Olmos MA (2008) Sediment-bound heavy metals as indicators of human influence and biological risk in coastal water bodies ICES. J Mar Sci 65:1407–1413Google Scholar
- Kabata-Pendias A (2010) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC press. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=YQfMBQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Trace+elements+in+soils+and+plants&ots=9lz1fQrz_g&sig=WDbPaeZ81ZgQu_7C2c606OJJq4
- Markert B (1994) Element concentration cadasters in ecosystems. Progress Report on the Element Concentration Cadaster Project ECCE of INTECOL/IUBS 25th General Assembly of IUBS, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Mokhtari M, Miri M, Mohammadi A, Khorsandi H, Hajizadeh Y, Abdolahnejad A (2015) Assessment of air quality index and health impact of PM10, PM2.5 and SO2 in Yazd Iran. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 25:14–23Google Scholar
- Rodriguez J, Wannaz E, Salazar M, Pignata M, Fangmeier A, Franzaring J (2012) Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the tree foliage of Eucalyptus rostrata, Pinus radiata and Populus hybridus in the vicinity of a large aluminium smelter in Argentina. Atmos Environ 55:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Serbula SM, Kalinovic TS, Ilic AA, Kalinovic JV, Steharnik MM (2013) Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution using Pinus spp. and Tilia spp. Aerosol Air Qual Res 13:563–573Google Scholar