Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 11, pp 10968–10982 | Cite as

The relationship between carbon dioxide and agriculture in Ghana: a comparison of VECM and ARDL model

  • Samuel Asumadu-SarkodieEmail author
  • Phebe Asantewaa Owusu
Research Article


In this paper, the relationship between carbon dioxide and agriculture in Ghana was investigated by comparing a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) and Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model. Ten study variables spanning from 1961 to 2012 were employed from the Food Agricultural Organization. Results from the study show that carbon dioxide emissions affect the percentage annual change of agricultural area, coarse grain production, cocoa bean production, fruit production, vegetable production, and the total livestock per hectare of the agricultural area. The vector error correction model and the autoregressive distributed lag model show evidence of a causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and agriculture; however, the relationship decreases periodically which may die over-time. All the endogenous variables except total primary vegetable production lead to carbon dioxide emissions, which may be due to poor agricultural practices to meet the growing food demand in Ghana. The autoregressive distributed lag bounds test shows evidence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the percentage annual change of agricultural area, cocoa bean production, total livestock per hectare of agricultural area, total pulses production, total primary vegetable production, and carbon dioxide emissions. It is important to end hunger and ensure people have access to safe and nutritious food, especially the poor, orphans, pregnant women, and children under-5 years in order to reduce maternal and infant mortalities. Nevertheless, it is also important that the Government of Ghana institutes agricultural policies that focus on promoting a sustainable agriculture using environmental friendly agricultural practices. The study recommends an integration of climate change measures into Ghana’s national strategies, policies and planning in order to strengthen the country’s effort to achieving a sustainable environment.


Carbon dioxide Agricultural emissions Cointegration VECM ARDL Ghana 



Akaike Information Criterion


Autoregressive Distributed Lag


% annual change (Agricultural area)


Coarse Grain, Production (Tons)


Cocoa, beans Production (Tonnes)


Final Prediction Error


Fruit excl Melons, Production (Tons)


Hannan-Quinn Information Criteria


Livestock total per hectare of agricultural area (No/Ha)


Sequential Likelihood-Ratio


Millennium Development Goals


Total Pulses Production


Roots and Tubers, Total Production (Tons)


Schwarz Information Criterion


Sustainable Development Goal


Vector Autoregression


Vector Error Correction Model


Vegetable Production (Tons)



Chi square




Cointegrated equation





Std. Err.

Standard error

Greek Letter



JEL Classification

Q54 Q57 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie
    • 1
    Email author
  • Phebe Asantewaa Owusu
    • 1
  1. 1.Sustainable Environment and Energy SystemsMiddle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus CampusGuzelyurtTurkey

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