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Occurrence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in swimming pools

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Abstract

The aim of this research was to investigate the presence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in public swimming pools. Various types of public swimming pool water were analysed, taken from freshwater indoor swimming pools, outdoor swimming pools, spa pools and seawater swimming pools. Swimming pool water samples were analysed for 30 PPCPs using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). All PPCPs were below quantification limits in seawater pools. However, caffeine was detected in 12 chlorinated swimming pools at concentrations up to 1540 ng/L and ibuprofen was observed in 7 chlorinated pools at concentrations up to 83 ng/L. Caffeine and ibuprofen concentrations were below quantification limits in all fill water samples, eliminating this as their source in swimming pools. High variations in caffeine concentrations monitored throughout the day roughly reflect bather loads in swimming pools. Future monitoring of these compounds may assist in evaluating what portion of organic matter measured in swimming pools may come from human excretions.

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Correspondence to Stuart J. Khan.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Teo, T.L.L., Coleman, H.M. & Khan, S.J. Occurrence and daily variability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in swimming pools. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23, 6972–6981 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5967-4

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