Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 23, Issue 8, pp 7861–7868 | Cite as

Sex steroid imbalances in the muricid Stramonita haemastoma from TBT contaminated sites

  • M. RossatoEmail author
  • I. B. CastroEmail author
  • C. L. Paganini
  • E. P. Colares
  • G. Fillmann
  • G. L. L. Pinho
Research Article


Imposex incidence, organotin tissue levels, and sex steroid (free and esterified testosterone and estradiol) levels were assessed in Stramonita haemastoma from Babitonga Bay (Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil). The imposex levels showed a reduction when compared to a previous evaluation performed in the same area. In spite of that, the detected imposex incidence indicated the occurrence of tributyltin (TBT) inputs that were still able to produce endocrine disruption in local gastropods. In addition, a high level of organotins was observed in tissues of imposexed females. These females also showed a hormonal imbalance, especially in the total testosterone/total estradiol ratio. These findings obtained under realistic field conditions suggest that the steroid pathway could be responsible by the imposex induction after exposure to TBT. In this case, measurements of sex steroid levels can be an additional evidence for monitoring sites and impose affected gastropod populations.


Butyltin accumulation Endocrine disruptor Hormonal disturbance Imposex Stramonita haemastoma TBT 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) of Brazil (478743/2008-4). M. Rossato (MSc grant 134989/ 381 2009). I. B. Castro (PhD grant 141550/2007) and G. Fillmann (PQ 312341/2013-0) were sponsored by CNPq.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Oceanografia. Laboratório de Microcontaminantes Orgânicos e Ecotoxicologia AquáticaUniversidade Federal do Rio GrandeRio GrandeBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de Ciências do MarUniversidade Federal de São PauloSantosBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto de Ciências BiológicasUniversidade Federal do Rio GrandeRio GrandeBrazil

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