Trace metals in surface sediments of the Taiwan Strait: geochemical characteristics and environmental indication
- 1.4k Downloads
The concentration and geochemical fractionation of six trace metals related with environmental quality assessment, namely Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, in 30 surface sediments from both inshore and offshore areas of the Taiwan Strait were measured to investigate their distribution characteristics, evaluate their potential mobility, and assess their pollution status. The geoaccumulation index results indicated that, on average, the studied metals presented an order of Cd > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cu > Cr and were practically in uncontaminated status except Cd. The results of the sequential extraction analysis indicated that, on average, the studied metals were mostly accumulated in residual fraction except Cd whose concentration was the highest in the acid soluble fraction presenting a high risk to the environment, and their mobility decreased in the sequence of Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cr. Based on the mean probable effect level quotients, the combination of the studied metals had an 8 % probability of being toxic at two sampling sites and had a 21 % probability of being toxic at the rest of sites. The spatial distribution of the studied metals in total concentrations and different geochemical fractions corroborated the previous findings about the possible sediment transportation routes in and around the Taiwan Strait.
KeywordsSequential extraction Chemical fractionation Environmental assessment Marginal sea Marine pollution
This study was co-supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST 103-2611-M-110-010, NSC 101-2611-M-110-010-MY3), the Taiwan’s Aim for the Top University Program (04C030204), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA11020102), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41376083). The assistance of Ms. Hui Gao in the sample preparation is greatly appreciated. Our thanks also go to three anonymous reviewers who provided constructive comments which helped improve the manuscript.
- Chen CTA (2007) Non-radioactive ocean pollution. In: Nihoul JCJ, Chen CTA (eds) Oceanography, vol 1. EOLSS Publishers, Oxford, pp 410–433Google Scholar
- Chen CTA, Sheu DD (2006) Does the Taiwan warm current originate in the Taiwan Strait in wintertime? J Geophys Res 111:C04005Google Scholar
- Chen CTA, Jan S, Huang TH, Tseng YH (2010) Spring of no Kuroshio intrusion in the southern Taiwan Strait. J Geophys Res 115:C08011Google Scholar
- Han AQ, Dai MH, Gan JP, Kao SJ, Zhao XZ, Jan S, Li Q, Lin H, Chen CTA, Wang L, Hu JY, Wang LF, Gong F (2013) Inter-shelf nutrient transport from the East China Sea as a major nutrient source supporting winter primary production on the northeast South China Sea shelf. Biogeosciences 10:8159–8170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu JP, Xue Z, Ross K, Wang HJ, Yang ZS, Li AC, Gao S (2009) Fate of sediments delivered to the sea by Asian large rivers: long-distance transport and formation of remote alongshore clinothems. Sediment Rec 7(4):4–9Google Scholar
- Müller G (1969) Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. GeoJournal 2:108–118Google Scholar
- Perin G, Craboledda L, Lucchese L, Cirillo R, Dotta L, Zanette ML, Orio AA (1985) Heavy metal speciation in the sediments of Northern Adriatic Sea: a new approach for environmental toxicity determination. In: Lekkas TD (ed) Heavy metal in the environment, vol 2. CEP Consultant, Edinburgh, pp 454–456Google Scholar
- Zhuang W, Gao XL (2014b) Integrated assessment of heavy metal pollution in the surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the coastal waters of the Zhangzi Island, China: comparison among typical marine sediment quality indices. PLoS ONE 9(4):e94145. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094145 CrossRefGoogle Scholar