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Less indoor cleaning is associated with poor health and unhappiness in adults: Japanese General Social Survey, 2010

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Abstract

Indoor environment is important to human health and well-being. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships among indoor cleaning, rubbish disposal and human health and well-being in a national and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the Japanese General Social Survey, 2010. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, frequency of indoor cleaning and rubbish disposal and self-reported health and well-being in Japanese adults was obtained by household interview. Analysis included chi-square test, logistic and multi-nominal regression modelling. Of 5003 Japanese adults (aged 20–89) included in the study cohort, 11.4 % (n = 566) never cleaned their living place, 39.1 % had occasional cleaning and 49.6 % had frequent cleaning. Moreover, 17.5 % (n = 869) never disposed rubbish, 24.9 % had occasional rubbish disposal and 57.6 % had frequent rubbish disposal. 15.0 % of Japanese adults claimed poor self-rated health, and 5.9 % reported unhappiness. Compared to people who frequently cleaned the living place, others tended to report poor self-rated health condition (relative risk ratios (RRR) 1.52, 95 % confidence intervals (CI) 1.24–1.85, P < 0.001) and unhappiness (RRR 1.47, 95 % CI 1.10–1.95, P < 0.001). The combined effects of never cleaning and never rubbish disposal significantly impacted on poor self-rated health (RRR 2.61, 95 % CI 1.40–4.88, P = 0.003) and unhappiness (RRR 2.72, 95 % CI 1.72–4.30, P < 0.001). Only half of the Japanese population frequently cleaned their living place and disposed rubbish. Less or never cleaning and rubbish disposal were associated with poor self-rated health, subjective happiness and potentially other health conditions. Public education on maintaining clean indoor environments to optimise psychological well-being in addition to the known physical health would be suggested.

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Correspondence to Ivy Shiue.

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Shiue, I. Less indoor cleaning is associated with poor health and unhappiness in adults: Japanese General Social Survey, 2010. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22, 20312–20315 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5643-8

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