Correlation studies on nitrogen for sunflower crop across the agroclimatic variability

Abstract

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is an important yield limiting factor for sunflower production. The correlation between yield components and growth parameters of three sunflower hybrids (Hysun-33, Hysun-38, Pioneer-64A93) were studied with five N rates (0, 60, 120, 180, 240 kg ha−1) at three different experimental sites during the two consecutive growing seasons 2008 and 2009. The results revealed that total dry matter (TDM) production and grain yield were positively and linearly associated with leaf area index (LAI), leaf area duration (LAD), and crop growth rate (CGR) at all three sites of the experiments. The significant association of yield with growth components indicated that the humid climate was most suitable for sunflower production. Furthermore, the association of these components can be successfully used to predict the grain yield under diverse climatic conditions. The application of N at increased rate of 180 kg ha−1 resulted in maximum yield as compared to standard rate (120 kg ha−1) at all the experimental sites. In this way, N application rate was significantly correlated with growth and development of sunflower under a variety of climatic conditions. Keeping in view such relationship, the N dose can be optimized for sunflower crop in a particular region to maximize the productivity. Multilocation trails help to predict the input rates precisely while taking climatic variations into account also. In the long run, results of this study provides basis for sustainable sunflower production under changing climate.

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Acknowledgments

The first author is grateful to the Government of France (Embassy of France in Pakistan) and Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for providing financial support (Project No. 833712H, 2014–2015) to International Center for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM), Institute Agronomique Mediterraneen de Montpellier (IAMM), France. High appreciations for the support provided by the staff of CIHEAM-IAMM (especially Madam Marie Helene BESSIERE) and staff from Campus France (especially Mr. SAADOUN Farid) during the visit by the first author.

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Correspondence to Shah Fahad.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Nasim, W., Belhouchette, H., Tariq, M. et al. Correlation studies on nitrogen for sunflower crop across the agroclimatic variability. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23, 3658–3670 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5613-1

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Keywords

  • Agroclimatic variability
  • Crop growth correlations
  • Helianthus annuus L
  • Nitrogen use efficiency
  • Yield