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Degradability of chlorophenols using ferrate(VI) in contaminated groundwater

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Abstract

The production and use of chlorophenolic compounds in industry has led to the introduction of many xenobiotics, among them chlorophenols (CPs), into the environment. Five CPs are listed in the priority pollutant list of the U.S. EPA, with pentachlorophenol (PCP) even being proposed for listing under the Stockholm Convention as a persistent organic pollutant (POP). A green procedure for degrading such pollutants is greatly needed. The use of ferrate could be such a process. This paper studies the degradation of CPs (with an emphasis on PCP) in the presence of ferrate both in a spiked demineralized water system as well as in real contaminated groundwater. Results proved that ferrate was able to completely remove PCP from both water systems. Investigation of the effect of ferrate purity showed that even less pure and thus much cheaper ferrate was applicable. However, with decreasing ferrate purity, the degradability of CPs may be lower.

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Acknowledgments

The work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic through the SGS project 21066/115, the Competence Centre of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic (TE01020218), the project OPR&DI of the Centre for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technologies and Innovation (CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0005) and the National Programme for Sustainability I (LO1201 and LO1305) of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic. We thank Petr Novák from Palacký University in Olomouc (UPOL) for the Mössbauer measurements and to LAC, Ltd. for providing the ferrates.

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Correspondence to M. Homolková.

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Responsible editor: Gerald Thouand

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Homolková, M., Hrabák, P., Kolář, M. et al. Degradability of chlorophenols using ferrate(VI) in contaminated groundwater. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23, 1408–1413 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5370-1

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Keywords

  • Degradability
  • Ferrate
  • Fe(VI)
  • Pentachlorophenol
  • Chlorophenols
  • Complex contaminated water