Effect of inorganic amendments for in situ stabilization of cadmium in contaminated soils and its phyto-availability to wheat and rice under rotation

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity is a widespread problem in crops grown on contaminated soils, and little information is available on the role of inorganic amendments in Cd immobilization, uptake, and tolerance in crops especially under filed conditions. The effect of three amendments, monoammonium phosphate (MAP), gypsum, and elemental sulfur (S), on Cd immobilization in soil and uptake in wheat and rice plants, under rotation, were investigated under field conditions receiving raw city effluent since >20 years and contaminated with Cd. Three levels of each treatment, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 % by weight, were applied at the start of the experiment, and wheat was sown in the field. After wheat harvesting, rice was sown in the same field without application of amendments. Both crops were harvested at physiological maturity, and data regarding grain yield, straw biomass, Cd concentrations, and uptake in grain and straw, and bioavailable Cd in soil and soil pH were recorded. Both MAP and gypsum application increased grain yield and biomass of wheat and rice, while S application did not increase the yield of both crops. MAP and gypsum amendments decreased gain and straw Cd concentrations and uptake in both crops, while S application increased Cd concentrations in these parts which were correlated with soil bioavailable Cd. We conclude that MAP and gypsum amendments could be used to decrease Cd uptake by plants receiving raw city effluents, and gypsum might be a better amendment for in situ immobilization of Cd due to its low cost and frequent availability.

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Acknowledgments

Thanks to the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for financial support. The results presented in this paper are a part of PhD studies of Muhammad Zia-ur Rehman.

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Correspondence to Shafaqat Ali.

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Responsible editor: Elena Maestri

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Rehman, M.Zu., Rizwan, M., Ghafoor, A. et al. Effect of inorganic amendments for in situ stabilization of cadmium in contaminated soils and its phyto-availability to wheat and rice under rotation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22, 16897–16906 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4883-y

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Keywords

  • Cadmium
  • Field experiment
  • Inorganic amendment
  • Immobilization
  • Wheat
  • Rice