Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 18, pp 13772–13799 | Cite as

The uptake and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by food plants, their effects on plants nutrients, and associated health risk: a review

  • Anwarzeb Khan
  • Sardar KhanEmail author
  • Muhammad Amjad Khan
  • Zahir Qamar
  • Muhammad Waqas
Review Article


Heavy metal contamination is a globally recognized environmental issue, threatening human life very seriously. Increasing population and high demand for food resulted in release of various contaminants into environment that finally contaminate the food chain. Edible plants are the major source of diet, and their contamination with toxic metals may result in catastrophic health hazards. Heavy metals affect the human health directly and/or indirectly; one of the indirect effects is the change in plant nutritional values. Previously, a number of review papers have been published on different aspects of heavy metal contamination. However, no related information is available about the effects of heavy metals on the nutritional status of food plants. This review paper is focused upon heavy metal sources, accumulation, transfer, health risk, and effects on protein, amino acids, carbohydrates, fats, and vitamins in plants. The literature about heavy metals in food plants shows that both leafy and nonleafy vegetables are good accumulators of heavy metals. In nonleafy vegetables, the bioaccumulation pattern was leaf > root ≈ stem > tuber. Heavy metals have strong influence on nutritional values; therefore, plants grown on metal-contaminated soil were nutrient deficient and consumption of such vegetables may lead to nutritional deficiency in the population particularly living in developing countries which are already facing the malnutrition problems.


Heavy metals Soil pH Nutrients Bioaccumulation Toxicity Plant growth 



The authors are thankful to the Higher Education Commission, Islamabad, Pakistan, for providing the financial support for this research.


  1. Abbasi AM, Iqbal J, Khan MA, Shah MH (2013) Health risk assessment and multivariate apportionment of trace metals in wild leafy vegetables from Lesser Himalayas, Pakistan. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 9:237–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2007) Arsenic CAS# 7440-38-2.
  3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2011) The 2011 priority list of hazardous substances. Online available at
  4. Ahmad JU, Goni MA (2010) Heavy metal contamination in water, soil, and vegetables of the industrial areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Environ Monit Assess 166:347–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmed F, Ishiga H (2006) Trace metal concentrations in street dusts of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Atmos Environ 40:3835–3844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alam MGM, Snow ET, Tanaka A (2003) Arsenic and heavy metal contamination of vegetables grown in Samta village, Bangladesh. Sci Total Environ 308:83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alexander M (1977) Introduction to soil microbiology, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Alexander M (1995) How toxic are toxic chemicals in soil? Environ Sci Technol 29:2713–2717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Allaway WH (1968) Agronomic control over the environmental cycling of trace elements. Adv Agron 20:235–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Allen HE, Hall RH, Brisbin TD (1980) Metals speciation effects on aquatic toxicity. Environ Sci Technol 14:441–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Alloway BJ (1995) Soil processes and the behavior of metals. In: Alloway BJ (ed) Heavy metals in soils. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, pp 11–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Alvarez S, Berla BM, Sheffield J, Cahoon RE, Jez JM, Hicks LM (2009) Comprehensive analysis of the Brassica juncea root proteome in response to cadmium exposure by complementary proteomic approaches. J Proteome 9:2419–2431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Amaral A, Rodrigues A (2005) Metal accumulation and apoptosis in the alimentary canal of Lumbricus terrestris as a metal biomarker. BioMetals 18:199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Amato F, Pandolfi M, Viana M, Querol X, Alastuey A, Moreno T (2009) Spatial and chemical patterns of PM10 in road dust deposited in urban environment. Atmos Environ 43:1650–1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Amini M, Khademi H, Afyuni M, Abbaspour KC (2005) Variability of available cadmium in relation to soil properties and landuse in an arid region in central Iran. Water Air Soil Pollut 162:205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Angelis KJ, McGuffie M, Menke M, Schubert I (2000) Adaptation to alkylation damage in DNA measured by the comet assay. Environ Mol Mutagen 36:146–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Angelova VR, Babrikov TD, Ivanov KI (2009) Bioaccumulation and distribution of lead, zinc, and cadmium in crops of Solanaceae family. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 40:2248–2263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Anjum NA, Umar S, Ahmad A, Iqbal M, Nafees NA (2008) Sulphur protects mustard (Brassica campestris L.) from cadmium toxicity by improving leaf ascorbate and glutathione sulphur protects mustard from cadmium toxicity. Plant Growth Regul 54:271–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Antoine JMR, Fung LAH, Grant CN, Dennis HT, Lalor GC (2012) Dietary intake of minerals and trace elements in rice on the Jamaican market. J Food Compos Anal 26:111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Apostoli P (2002) Elements in environmental and occupational medicine. J Chromatogr B 778:63–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Arain MB, Kazi TG, Baig JA, Jamali MK, Afridi HI, Shah AQ, Jalbani N, Sarfraz RA (2009) Determination of arsenic levels in lake water, sediment, and foodstuff from selected area of Sindh, Pakistan: estimation of daily dietary intake. Food Chem Toxicol 47:242–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Arao T, Ae N (2003) Genotypic variations in cadmium levels of rice grain. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 49:473–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Aremu MO, Atolaiye BO, Labaran L (2010) Environmental implication of metal concentrations in soil, plant foods and pond in area around the Derelict Udege mines of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Bull Chem Soc Ethiop 24(3):351–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Arkhipchuk VV, Malinovskaya MV, Garanko NN (2000) Cytogenetic study of organic and inorganic toxic substances on Allium cepa, Lactuca sativa, and Hydra attenuata cells. Environ Toxicol 15:338–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Arora A, Sairam RK, Srivastava GC (2002) Oxidative stress and antioxidative system in plants. Curr Sci 82:1227–1338Google Scholar
  26. Arora M, Kiran B, Rani S, Rani A, Kaur B, Mittal N (2008) Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables irrigated with water from different sources. Food Chem 111:811–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Arshad M, Silvestre J, Pinelli E, Kallerhoff J, Kaemmerer M, Tarigo A, Shahid M, Guiresse M, Pradere P, Dumat C (2008) A field study of lead phytoextraction by various scented Pelargonium cultivars. Chemosphere 71:2187–2192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Astolfi S, Zuchi S, Passera C (2004) Role of sulphur availability on cadmium-induced changes of nitrogen and sulphur metabolism in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. J Plant Physiol 161:795–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Awashthi SK (2000) Prevention of Food Adulteration Act no 37 of 1954. Central and State Rules as Amended for 1999. Ashoka Law House, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  30. Bader JL, Gonzalez G, Goodell PC (1999) Chromium-resistant bacterial populations from a site heavily contaminated with hexavalent chromium. Water Air Soil Pollut 109:263–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Baker AMJ, Brooks RR (1989) Terrestrial higher plants which hyperaccumulate metallic elements—a review of their distribution, ecology and phytochemistry. Biorecovery 1:81–126Google Scholar
  32. Baker A, Mc Grath S, Reeves R, Smith J (2000) Metal hyper accumulator plants: a review of the ecology and physiology of a biological resource for phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils. In: Terry N, Banuelos G (eds) Phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Lewis Publisher, London, pp 85–107Google Scholar
  33. Basta NT, Ryan JA, Chaney RL (2005) Trace element chemistry in residual-treated soils: key concepts and metal bioavailability. J Environ Qual 34:49–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Batista BL, Souza VCDO, Da Silva FG, Barbosa F Jr (2010) Survey of 13 trace elements of toxic and nutritional significance in rice from Brazil and exposure assessment. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 3(4):253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Batista BL, Souza JMO, De Souza SS, Barbosa F Jr (2011) Speciation of arsenic in rice and estimation of daily intake of different arsenic species by Brazilians through rice consumption. J Hazard Mater 191:342–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ben Youssef N, Nouairi I, Ben Temime S, Taamalli W, Zarrouk M, Ghorbal MH, Ben Miled Daoud D (2005) Effets du cadmium sur le métabolisme des lipides de plantules de colza (Brassica napus L.). C R Biol 328:745–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bergner P (1997) The healing power of minerals, special nutrients and trace elements. Prima Publishing, RocklinGoogle Scholar
  38. Beyer WN, Cromartie EJ (1987) A survey of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, As and Se in earthworms and soil from diverse sites. Environ Monit Assess 8:27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bi X, Feng X, Yang Y, Qiu G, Li G, Li F, Liu T, Fu Z, Jin Z (2006) Environmental contamination of heavy metals from zinc smelting areas in Hezhang County, western Guizhou, China. Environ Int 32:883–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bibi M, Hussain M (2005) Effect of copper and lead on photosynthesis and plant pigments in black gram (Vigna mungo L.). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 74:1126–1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bigdeli M, Seilsepour M (2008) Investigation of metals accumulation in some vegetables irrigated with waste water in Shahre Rey-Iran and toxicological implications. Am Euras J Agric Environ Sci 4(1):86–92Google Scholar
  42. Bilski JJ, Foy CD (1987) Differential tolerances of oat cultivars to aluminum in nutrient solutions and in acid soils of Poland. J Plant Nutr 10:129–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bini C, Wahsha M, Fontana S, Maleci L (2012) Effects of heavy metals on morphological characteristics of Taraxacum officinale Web growing on mine soils in NE Italy. J Geochem Explor 123:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Biswas A, Biswas S, Santra SC (2013) Arsenic in irrigated water, soil, and rice: perspective of the cropping seasons. Paddy Water Environ. doi: 10.1007/s10333-013-0396-9 Google Scholar
  45. Blaylock MJ, Elles MP, Nuttal CY, Zdimal KL, Lee CR (2003) Treatment of As contaminated soil and water using Pteris vittata. Proc VI ICOBTE, Uppsala, SvGoogle Scholar
  46. Bonierbale M, Amoros W, Burgos G, Salas E, Juarez H (2007) Prospects for enhancing the nutritional value of potato by plant breeding. Afr Potato Assoc Conf Proc 7(2):26–46Google Scholar
  47. Bouazizi H, Jouili H, Geitmann A, Ferjani EEI (2010) Copper toxicity in expanding leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L.: antioxidant enzyme response and nutrient element uptake. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73:1304–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Bouma J (1989) Using soil survey data for quantitative land evalution. Adv Soil Sci 9:177–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Brahman KD, Kazi TG, Baig JA, Afridi HI, Khan A, Arain SS, Arain MB (2014) Fluoride and arsenic exposure through water and grain crops in Nagarparkar. Pak Chemosphere 100:182–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Bunzl K, Trautmannsheimer M, Schramel P (1999) Partitioning of heavy metals in a soil contaminated by slag: a redistribution study. J Environ Qual 28:1168–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. California Environmental Protection Agency Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (2011) Chemicals known to the state to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity, September 2, 2011.
  52. Cannon HL, Connally GG, Epstein JB, Parker JG, Thornton I, Wixson G (1978) Rocks: geological sources of most trace elements. In: report to the workshop at south scas plantation Captiva Island, FL, US. Geochem Environ 3:17–31Google Scholar
  53. Carfagna S, Vona V, Martino VD, Esposito S, Riganoa S (2010) Nitrogen assimilation and cysteine biosynthesis in barley: evidence for root sulphur assimilation upon recovery from N deprivation. Environ Exp Bot 71:18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Carral E, Villares R, Puente X, Carba Ueira A (1995) Influence of watershed lithology on heavy-metal levels in estuarine sediments and organisms in Galicia (north-west Spain). Mar Pollut Bull 30:604–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Castro E, Manas P, Heras JDL (2009) A comparison of the application of different waste products to a lettuce crop: effects on plant and soil properties. Sci Hortic 123:148–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Caussy D, Gochfeld M, Gurzau E, Neagu C, Ruedel H (2003) Lessons from case studies of metals: investigating exposure, bioavailability, and risk. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 56:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. CCME (2005) Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, WinnipegGoogle Scholar
  58. Chaffei CK, Pageau A, Suzuki H, Gouia MH, Ghorbel, Masclaux-Daubresse C (2004) Cadmium toxicity induced changes in nitrogen management in Lycopersicon esculentum leading to a metabolic safeguard through an amino acid storage strategy. Plant Cell Physiol 45:1681–1693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Chang R (2000) Physical chemistry for the chemical and biological sciences. University Science Books, SausalitoGoogle Scholar
  60. Chang LW, Meier JR, Smith MK (1997) Application of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of a lead-contaminated soil. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32:166–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Chang CY, Yu HY, Chen JJ, Li FB, Zhang HH, Liu CP (2014) Accumulation of heavy metals in leaf vegetables from agricultural soils and associated potential health risks in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Environ Monit Assess 186:1547–1560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Chapman PM, Wang FY, Janssen CR, Goulet RR, Kamunde CN (2003) Conducting ecological risk assessments of inorganic metals and metalloids: current status. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 9:641–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Chapman E, Dave G, Murimboh J (2010) Ecotoxicological risk assessment of undisturbed metal contaminated soil at two remote lighthouse sites. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73:961–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Chapman EEV, Hedrei Helmer S, Dave G, Murimboh JD (2012) Utility of bioassays (lettuce, red clover, red fescue, Microtox, MetSTICK, Hyalella, bait lamina) in ecological risk screening of acid metal (Zn) contaminated soil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 80:161–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Chary NS, Kamala CT, Raj DSS (2008) Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 69:513–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Chaves LHG, Estrela MA, Sena de Souza R (2011) Effect on plant growth and heavy metal accumulation by sunflower. J Phytol 3(12):04–09Google Scholar
  67. Chen HM, Zheng CR, Tu C, Zhu YG (1999) Heavy metal pollution in soils in China: status and countermeasures. Ambio 28:130–134Google Scholar
  68. Cheraghi M, Lorestani B, Merrikhpour H, Rouniasi N (2013) Heavy metal risk assessment for potatoes grown in overused phosphate-fertilized soils. Environ Monit Assess 185:1825–1831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Chien LC, Hung TC, Choang KY, Choang KY, Yeh CY, Meng PJ et al (2002) Daily intake of TBT, Cu, Zn, Cd and As for fishermen in Taiwan. Sci Total Environ 285:177–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Chlopecka A (1996) Forms of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil and their uptake by cereal crops when applied jointly as carbonates. Water Air Soil Pollut 87:297–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Christian P (2010) Micronutrients, birth weight, and survival. Annu Rev Nutr 30:83–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Cobbett CS (2000) Phytochelatins and their roles in heavy metal detoxification. Plant Physiol 123(3):825–832Google Scholar
  73. Codex (1995) Codex general standard for contaminants and toxins in food and feed. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Rome, Codex Standard 193-1995Google Scholar
  74. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Contaminants (1984) Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program, Codex Alimenturius, XVIIGoogle Scholar
  75. COM (2006) 231 final. Communication from the Commission of the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Thematic strategy for soil protection. 22 September 2006. BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  76. Cui YJ, Zhu YG, Zhai RH, Chen DY, Huang YZ, Qiu Y, Ling JZ (2004) Transfer of metals from soil to vegetables in an area near a smelter in Nanning, China. Environ Int 30:785–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Cui YJ, Zhu YG, Zhai RH, Huang Y, Qiu Y, Liang J (2005) Exposure to metal mixtures and human health impacts in a contaminated area in Nanning, China. Environ Int 31:784–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Czupyran G, Levy RD (1989) In situ immobilization of heavy metal contaminated soil, section II. Noyes Data Corp, Park RidgeGoogle Scholar
  79. D’Mello JPF (2003) Food safety: contaminants and toxins. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, p 480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Dang YP, Chhabra R, Verma KS (1990) Effect of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn on growth and chemical composition of onion and fenugreek. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 21:717–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Datta A, Sanyal S, Saha S (2001) A study on natural and synthetic humic acids and their complexing ability towards cadmium. Plant Soil 235(1):115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. de Dorlodot S, Lutts S, Bertin P (2005) Effects of ferrous iron toxicity on the growth and mineral composition of an inter specific rice. J Plant Nutr 28:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. De Miguel E, Llamas JF, Chacón E, Berg T, Larssen S, Royset O, Vadset M (1997) Origin and patterns of distribution of trace elements in street dust: unleaded petrol and urban lead. Atmos Environ 31:2733–2740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. De Miguel E, Irribarren I, Chacón E, Ordoñez A, Charlesworth S (2007) Risk-based evaluation of the exposure of children to trace elements in playgrounds in Madrid (Spain). Chemosphere 66:505–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. DeWolf H, Blust R, Backeljau T (2004) The use of RAPD in ecotoxicology. Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res 566:249–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. DHAenC (Department of Health and Aging and enHealth Council) (2012) Environmental health risk assessment: guidelines for assessing human health risks from environmental hazards [R]. ACT, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  87. Di Palma L, Ferrantelli P, Merli C, Biancifiori F (2003) Recovery of EDTA and metal precipitation from soil flushing solutions. J Hazard Mater 103:153–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Di Salvatore M, Carafa AM, Carratu G (2008) Assessment of heavy metals phytotoxicity using seed germination and root elongation tests: a comparison of two growth substrates. Chemosphere 73:1461–1464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ding C, Zhang T, Wang X, Zhou F, Yang Y, Yin Y (2013) Effects of soil type and genotype on lead concentration in rootstalk vegetables and the selection of cultivars for food safety. J Environ Manag 122:8–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Djebali W, Zarrouk M, Brouquisse R, El Kahoui S, Limam F, Ghorbel MH, Chaibi W (2005) Ultrastructure and lipid alterations induced by cadmium in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) chloroplast membranes. Plant Biol 7:358–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Donma O, Donma MM (2005) Cadmium, lead and phytochemicals. Med Hypotheses 65:699–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Duruibe JO, Ogwuegbu MDC, Egwurugwu JN (2007) Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. Int J Physiol Sci 2(5):112–118Google Scholar
  93. Duzgoren-Aydin NS, Wong CSC, Aydin A, Song Z, You M, Li XD (2006) Heavy metal contamination and distribution in the urban environment of Guangzhou, SE China. Environ Geochem Health 28:375–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ebbs S, Talbott J, Sankaran R (2006) Cultivation of garden vegetables in Peoria Pool sediments from the Illinois River: a case study in trace element accumulation and dietary exposures. Environ Int 32:766–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. EC (2006) Commission Regulation No 1881/2006: setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in food stuffs. European Commission (EC)Google Scholar
  96. Elbagermi MA, Edwards HGM, Alajtal AI (2012) Monitoring of heavy metal content in fruits and vegetables collected from production and market sites in the Misurata Area of Libya. Int Sch Res Net. doi: 10.5402/2012/827645 Google Scholar
  97. Environment Canada (2005) Biological test method: test for measuring emergence and growth of terrestrial plants exposed to contaminants in soil. Method Development and Applications Section, Environmental Technology CentreGoogle Scholar
  98. Ernst WHO (1996) Bioavailability of heavy metals and decontamination of soils by plants. Appl Geochem 11:163–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. European Union (2006) Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union 364:5–24Google Scholar
  100. Evangelou VP, Marsi M (2001) Composition and metal ion complexation behavior of humic fractions derived from corn tissue. Plant Soil 229:13–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ewers U (1991) Standards, guidelines and legislative regulations concerning metals and their compounds. In: Merian E (ed) Metals and their compounds in the environment: occurrence, analysis and biological relevance. VCH, Weinheim, pp 458–468Google Scholar
  102. Facchinelli A, Sacchi E, Mallen L (2001) Multivariate statistical and GIS-based approach to identify heavy metal sources in soils. Environ Pollut 114:313–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. FAO (2000) Food balance sheet, Rome. National Institute of Health (1988) National Nutrition Survey, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  104. FAO/WHO (2001a) Food additives and contaminants. Codex Alimentarius Commission. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program, ALI-NORM 01/12A, pp 1–289Google Scholar
  105. FAO/WHO (2001b) Human vitamin and mineral requirements, 2nd ed. Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  106. FAOSTAT (2007) FAOSTAT agriculture production database.
  107. Farinati S, DalCorso G, Varotto S, Furini A (2010) The Brassica juncea BjCdR15, an ortholog of Arabidopsis TGA3, is a regulator of cadmium uptake, transport and accumulation in shoots and confers cadmium tolerance in transgenic plants. New Phytol 185:964–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ferré-Huguet N, Martí-Cid R, Schuhmacher M, Domingo JL (2008) Risk assessment of metals from consuming vegetables, fruits and rice grown on soils irrigated with waters of the Ebro River in Catalonia. Spain. Biol Trace Elem Res 123:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ferreira-Baptista L, De Miguel E (2005) Geochemistry and risk assessment of street dust in Luanda, Angola: a tropical urban environment. Atmos Environ 39:4501–4512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Finglas PM, Faulks RM (1984) The HPLC analysis of thiamin and riboflavin in potatoes. Food Chem 15:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Fismes J, Perrin-Ganier C, Empereur-Biosoonnet P, Morel JL (2002) Soil to root transfer and translocation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by vegetables grown on industrial contaminated soils. J Environ Qual 31:1649–1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Fjällborg B, Ahlberg G, Nilsson E, Dave G (2005) Identification of metal toxicity in sewage sludge leachate. Environ Int 31:25–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. FNB (2004) Dietary reference intakes (DRIs): recommended intakes for individuals. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National AcademiesGoogle Scholar
  114. Fox MRS (1988) Nutritional factors that may influence bioavailability of cadmium. J Environ Qual 17:175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Fox TR, Comerfield NB (1990) Low molecular weight organic acid in selected forest soils of the south-eastern USA. Soil Sci Soc Am J 54:1763–1767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Galal TM, Shehata HS (2015) Bioaccumulation and translocation of heavy metals by Plantago major L. grown in contaminated soils under the effect of traffic pollution. Ecol Indic 48:244–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Gallego SM, Benavides MP, Tomaro ML (1999) Effect of cadmium ions on antioxidative defense system in sunflower cotyledons. Biol Plant 42:49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Garate A, Ramos I, Manzanares M, Lucena JJ (1993) Cadmium uptake and distribution in three cultivars of Lactuca sp. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 50:709–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. García I, Diez M, Martín F, Simón M, Dorronsoro C (2009) Mobility of arsenic and heavy metals in a sandy-loam textured and carbonated soil. Pedosphere 19:166–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Garty J (2001) Biomonitoring atmospheric heavy metals with lichens: theory and application. Crit Rev Plant Sci 20:309–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Gawęda M (2007) Changes in the contents of some carbohydrates in vegetables cumulating lead. Pol J Environ Stud 16(1):57–62Google Scholar
  122. Ge KY (1992) The status of nutrient and meal of Chinese in the 1990s. People’s Hygiene Press, Beijing, pp 415–434Google Scholar
  123. Ge Y, Hendershot W (2005) Modeling sorption of Cd, Hg and Pb in soils by the NICA [non-ideal competitive adsorption]—Donnan model. Soil Sediment Contam 14:53–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Gebrekidan A, Weldegebriel Y, Hadera A, Bruggen BVD (2013) Toxicological assessment of heavy metals accumulated in vegetables and fruits grown in Ginfel river near Sheba Tannery, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 95:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Gichner T, Patková Z, Száková J, Demnerová K (2004) Cadmium induces DNA damage in tobacco roots, but no DNA damage, somatic mutations or homologous recombination in tobacco leaves. Mutat Res Gen Toxicol Environ 559:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Gichner T, Patková Z, Száková J, Demnerová K (2006) Toxicity and DNA damage in tobacco and potato plants growing on soil polluted with heavy metals. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 65:420–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Gil C, Boluda R, Ramos J (2004) Determination and evaluation of cadmium lead and nickel in greenhouse soils of Almeria (Spain). Chemosphere 55:1027–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Gilbert-Diamond D, Cottingham KL, Gruber JF, Punshon T, Sayarath V, Gonçalves JF, Antes FG, Maldaner J, Pereira LB, Tabaldi LA, Rauber R, Rossato LV, Bisognin DA, Dressler VL, Flores EMDM, Nicoloso FT (2011) Cadmium and mineral nutrient accumulation in potato plantlets grown under cadmium stress in two different experimental culture conditions. Plant Physiol Biochem 47:814–821Google Scholar
  129. Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:909–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Gill SS, Khana NA, Tuteja N (2012) Cadmium at high dose perturbs growth, photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism while at low dose it up regulates sulfur assimilation and antioxidant machinery in garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.). Plant Sci 182:112–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Giovanelli G, Paradise A (2002) Stability of dried and intermediate moisture tomato pulp during storage. Agric Food Chem 50:7277–7281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Goldbold DL, Huttermann A (1985) Effect of zinc, cadmium and mercury on root elongation of Picea abies (Karst) seedlings and the significance of these metals to forest die-back. Environ Pollut 38:375–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Gonçalve JF, Antes FG, Maldaner J, Pereira LB, Tabaldi LA, Rauber R, Rossato LV, Bisognin DA, Dressler VL, Flores EMM, Nicoloso FT (2009) Cadmium and mineral nutrient accumulation in potato plantlets grown under cadmium stress in two different experimental culture conditions. Plant Physiol Biochem 47:814–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Gopal R, Khurana N (2011) Effect of heavy metal pollutants on sunflower. African J Plant Sci 5(9):531–536Google Scholar
  135. Graham RD, Welch RM, Saunders DA, Ortiz-Monasterio I, Bouis HE, Bonierbale M (2006) Nutritious subsistence food systems. Adv AgronGoogle Scholar
  136. Grill E, Loffler S, Winnacker E-L, Zenk MH (1989) Phytochelatins, the heavy-metal-binding peptides of plants, are synthesized from glutathione by a specific gamma-glutamylcysteine dipeptidyl transpeptidase (phytochelatin synthase). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:6838–6842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Grusak MA, Dellapenna D (1999) Improving the nutrient composition of plants to enhance human nutrition and health. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:133–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Gupta S, Bains K (2006) Traditional cooked vegetable dishes as important sources of ascorbic acid and b-carotene in the diets of Indian urban and rural families. Food Nutr Bull 27:306–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Gupta N, Khan DK, Santra SC (2012) Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables grown in a long-term wastewater-irrigated agricultural land of tropical India. Environ Monit Assess 184:6673–6682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Halim M, Conte P, Piccolo A (2003) Potential availability of heavy metals to phytoextraction from contaminated soils induced by exogenous humic substances. Chemosphere 52:265–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Han Y, Du P, Cao J, Posmentier ES (2006) Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi'an, Central China. Sci Total Environ 355:176–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Hansch R, Mendel RR (2009) Physiological functions of mineral micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, Mo, B, Cl). Curr Opin Plant Biol 12:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Hart JJ, Welch RM, Norvell WA, Kochian LV (2006) Characterization of cadmium uptake, translocation and storage in near-isogenic lines of durum wheat that differ in grain cadmium concentration. New Phytol 172:261–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Hawkes JS (1997) Heavy metals. J Chem Educ 74:1369–1374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. He J, Qin J, Long L, Ma Y, Li H, Li K, Jiang X, Liu X, Polle A, Liang Z, Luo ZB (2011) Net cadmium flux and accumulation oxidative stress and detoxification. Physiol Plant 143:50–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Hermle S, Günthardt-Goerg MS, Schulin R (2006) Effects of metal-contaminated soil on the performance of young trees growing in model ecosystems under field conditions. Environ Pollut 144:703–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Hernández LE, Gárate A, Lucena JJ, Carpena-Ruiz R (1995) Effect of cadmium on nitrogen fixing pea plants grown in perlite and vermiculite. J Plant Nutr 18:287–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Hernández LE, Lozano E, Gárate A, Carpena R (1998) Influence of cadmium on the uptake, tissue accumulation and subcellular distribution of manganese in pea seedlings. Plant Sci 132:139–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Hesse H, Nikiforova V, Gakiére B, Hoefgen R (2004) Molecular analysis and control of cysteine biosynthesis: integration of nitrogen and sulphur metabolism. J Exp Bot 55:1283–1292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Hooda PS, McNulty D, Alloway BJ (1997) Plant availability of heavy metals in soils previously amended with heavy applications of sewage sludge. J Sci Food Agric 73:446–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Hossain Z, Huq F (2002) Studies on the interaction between Cd2+ ions and nucleobases and nucleotides. J Inorg Biochem 90:97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Hough RL, Young SD, Crout NMJ (2003) Modelling of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn uptake, by winter wheat and forage, from a sewage disposal farm. J Soil Use Manag 19:19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Hu J, Wu F, Wu S, Sun X, Lin X, Wong MH (2013) Phytoavailability and phytovariety codetermine the bioaccumulation risk of heavy metal from soils, focusing on Cd-contaminated vegetable farms around the Pearl River Delta, China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 91:18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Huang JH, Fecher P, Ilgen G, Hu KN, Yang J (2012) Speciation of arsenite and arsenate in rice grain—verification of nitric acid based extraction method and mass sample survey. Food Chem 130:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Huq I, Smith E, Correll R, Smith L, Smith J, Ahmed M, Roy S, Barnes M, Naidu R (2001) Arsenic transfer in water soil crop environments in Bangladesh. I: assessing potential arsenic exposure pathways in Bangladesh. In: Naidu R (ed) Arsenic in the Asia-Pacific Region workshop, ‘Managing arsenic for our future.’ 20–23 November 2001. Australia, Adelaide, p 50–51Google Scholar
  156. Ikeda M, Zhang ZW, Shimbo S, Watanabe T, Nakatsuka H, Moon CS, Matsuda-Inoguchi N, Higashikawa K (2000) Urban population exposure to lead and cadmium in east and south-east Asia. Sci Total Environ 249:373–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Imai A, Fukushima T, Matsushige K, Kim YH, Choi K (2002) Characterization of dissolved organic matter in effluents from wastewater treatment plants. Water Res 36:859–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Intawongse M, Dean JR (2006) Uptake of heavy metals by vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil and their bioavailability in the human gastrointestinal tract. Food Addit Contam 23(1):36–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Ipek U, Arslan EI, Öbek E, Karatas F, Erulas FA (2005) Determination of vitamin losses and degradation kinetics during composting. Process Biochem 40:621–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Islam MR, Salminen R, Lahermo PW (2000) Arsenic and other toxic elemental contamination of groundwater, surface water and soil in Bangladesh and its possible effects on human health. Environ Geochem Health 22:33–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. ISO (2005a) Soil quality: chronic toxicity in higher plants. ISO 22030. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  162. ISO (2005b) Soil quality—determination of the effects of pollutants on soil flora-screening test for emergence of lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.). ISO 17126. International Organization for Standardization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  163. ISO/DIS 17402 (2006) Soil quality—guidance for the selection and application of methods for the assessment of bioavailability in soil and soil materialsGoogle Scholar
  164. Iyengar V, Nair P (2000) Global outlook on nutrition and the environment: meeting the challenges of the next millennium. Sci Total Environ 249:331–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Jensen J, Mesman M, Loibner AP, Erlacher E, Rutgers M, Archibald G, Ehlers C, Dirven-van Breemen L, Bogolte BT, Sorokin N, Celis RL, ter Laak T, Hartnik T, Bierkens J (2006) Ecological risk assessment of contaminated land: decision support for site specific investigations. RIVMGoogle Scholar
  166. John MK, Van Laerhoven CJ (1976) Differential effects of cadmium on lettuce varieties. Environ Pollut 4:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. John R, Ahmad P, Gadgil K, Sharma S (2009) Heavy metal toxicity: effect on plant growth, biochemical parameters and metal accumulation by Brassica juncea L. Int J Plant Prod 3:65–76Google Scholar
  168. Jones C (2006) Förbättrade miljöriskbedömningar Naturvårdsverket, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  169. Juhasz AL, Smith E, Weber J, Rees M, Rofe A, Kuchel T, Sansom L, Naidu R (2006) In vivo assessment of arsenic bioavailability in rice and its significance for human health risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect 114:1826–1831Google Scholar
  170. Kachenko AG, Singh B (2006) Heavy metals contamination in vegetables grown in urban and metal smelter contaminated sites in Australia. Water Air Soil Pollut 169:101–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Kar S, Das S, Jean J-S, Chakraborty S, Liu C-C (2013) Arsenic in the water-soil-plant system and the potential health risks in the coastal part of Chianan Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. J Asian Earth Sci. doi: 10.1016/j.jseaes.2013.03.003 Google Scholar
  172. Kartal S, Aydin Z, Tokalıoğlu S (2006) Fractionation of metals in street sediment samples by using the BCR sequential extraction procedure and multivariate statistical elucidation of the data. J Hazard Mater 132:80–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Kashif SR, Akram M, Yaseen M, Ali S (2009) Studies on heavy metals status and their uptake by vegetables in adjoining areas of Hudiara drain in Lahore. Soil Environ 28(1):7–12Google Scholar
  174. Khan FI, Husain T (2001) Risk-based monitored natural attenuation—a case study. J Hazard Mater 85:243–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Khan S, Cao Q, Chen B-D, Zhu YG (2006) Humic acids increase the phytoavailability of Cd and Pb to wheat plants cultivated in freshly spiked, contaminated soil. J Soil Sediments 6(4):236–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Khan S, Aijun L, Zhang S, Hu Q, Zhu YG (2008a) Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in lettuce grown in the soils contaminated with long-term wastewater irrigation. J Hazard Mater 152:506–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Khan S, Cao Q, Zheng YM, Huang YZ, Zhu YG (2008b) Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environ Pollut 152:686–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Khan S, Hesham AEL, Qiao M, Rehman S, He JZ (2010a) Effects of Cd and Pb on soil microbial community structure and activities. Environ Sci Pollut Res 17:288–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Khan S, Rehman S, Khan AZ, Khan MA, Shah MT (2010b) Soil and vegetables enrichment with heavy metals from geological sources in Gilgit, northern Pakistan. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73:1820–1827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Khan S, Waqas M, Ding F, Shamshad I, Arpd  HPH, Li G (2015) The influence of various biochars on the bioaccessibility and bioaccumulation of PAHs and potentially toxic elements to turnips (Brassica rapa L.). J Hazard Mater 300 (2015) 1–11 doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.06.050
  181. Khan K, Lu Y, Khan H, Ishtiaq M, Khan S, Waqas M, Wei L, Wang T (2013a) Heavy metals in agricultural soils and crops and their health risks in Swat District, northern Pakistan. Food Chem Toxicol 58:449–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Khan S, Chao C, Waqas M, Arp HPH, Zhu YG (2013b) Sewage sludge biochar influence upon rice (Oryza sativa L) yield, metal bioaccumulation and greenhouse gas emissions from acidic paddy soil. Environ Sci Technol 47:8624–8632Google Scholar
  183. Khan S, Reid BJ, Li G, Zhu YG (2014) Application of biochar to soil reduces cancer risk via rice consumption: a case study in Miaoqian village, Longyan, China. Environ Int 68:154–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Khanna-Chopra R (2012) Leaf senescence and abiotic stresses share reactive oxygen species-mediated chloroplast degradation. Protoplasma 249:469–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Khillare PS, Jyethi DS, Sarkar S (2012) Health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals via dietary intake of vegetables grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants. Food Chem Toxicol 50:1642–1652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Kieffer P, Schroder P, Dommes J, Hoffmann L, Renaut J, Hausman JF (2009) Proteomic and enzymatic response of poplar to cadmium stress. J Proteome 72:379–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Kim D-Y, Bovet L, Kushnir S, Noh EW, Martinoia E, Lee Y (2006) AtATM3 is involved in heavy metal resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 140:922–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Kim H, Song B, Kim H, Park J (2009) Distribution of trace metals at two abandoned mine sites in Korea and arsenic-associated health risk for the residents. Toxicol Environ Heal Sci 1(2):83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Kovalchuk O, Titov V, Hohn B, Kovalchuk G (2001) A sensitive transgenic plant system to detect toxic inorganic compounds in the environment. Nat Biotechnol 19:568–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Kovalchuk I, Titov V, Hohn B, Kovalchuk O (2005) Transcriptome profiling reveals similarities and differences in plant responses to cadmium and lead. Mutat Res Fundam Mol Mech Mutagen 570:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Kowalewska G, Falkowski L, Hoffmann SK, Szczepaniak L (1987) Replacement of magnesium by copper (II) in the chlorophyll porphyrin ring of planktonic algae. Acta Physiol Plant 9:43–52Google Scholar
  192. Krantev A, Yordanova R, Janda T, Szalai G, Popova L (2008) Treatment with salicylic acid decreases the effect of cadmium on photosynthesis in maize plants. J Plant Physiol 165:920–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Kratovalieva S, Cvetanowska L (2001) Influence of different lead concentrations to some morpho-physiological parameters at tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in experimental conditions. Maced Agric Rev 48(1/2):35Google Scholar
  194. Krishnamurti GSR, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2004) Bioavailability of cadmium-organic complexes to soil alga—an exception to the free ion model. J Agric Food Chem 52:3894–3899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Kumari MM, Sinhal VK, Srivastava A, Singh VP (2011) Zinc alleviates cadmium induced toxicity in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. J Phytol 3(8):43–46Google Scholar
  196. Kuo S, Huang B, Bembenek R (2004) The availability to lettuce of zinc and cadmium in a zinc fertilizer. Soil Sci 169:363–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Lacatutsu R, Rauta C, Cârstea S, Ghelase I (1996) Soil plant-man relationships in heavy metal polluted areas in Romania. Appl Geochem 11:105–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Lagier T, Feuillade G, Matejka G (2000) Interactions between copper and organic macromolecules: determination of conditional complexation constants. Agronomie 20:537–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Le Guédard M, Schraauwers B, Larrieu I, Bessoule J-J (2008) Development of a biomarker for metal bioavailability: the lettuce fatty acid composition. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:1147–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Le Guédard M, Faure O, Bessoule J-J (2012) Early changes in the fatty acid composition of photosynthetic membrane lipids from Populus nigra grown on a metallurgical landfill. Chemosphere 88:693–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Lee S-W, Lee B-T, Kim J-Y, Kim K-W, Lee J-S (2006) Human risk assessment for heavy metals and As contamination in the abandoned metal areas, Korea. Environ Monit Assess 11:233–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Lee J-S, Lee S-W, Chon H-T, Kim K-W (2008) Evaluation of human exposure to arsenic due to rice ingestion in the vicinity of abandoned Myungbong Au-Ag mine site, Korea. J Geochem Explor 96:231–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Leonard SS, Harris GK, Shi XL (2004) Metal-induced oxidative stress and signal transduction. Free Radic Biol Med 37:1921–1942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Li Z, Shuman LM (1996) Heavy metal movement in metal contaminated soil profiles. Soil Sci 161:656–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Li W, Khan MA, Yamaguchi S, Kamiya Y (2005a) Effects of heavy metals on seed germination and early seedling growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Growth Regul 46:45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Li WX, Chen TB, Chen Y, Lei M (2005b) Role of trichome Pteris vittata L. in arsenic hyperaccumulation. Sci China Ser C Life Sci 48:148–154Google Scholar
  207. Li BY, Zhou DM, Cang L, Zhang HL, Fan XH, Qin SW (2007) Soil micronutrient availability to crops as affected by long-term inorganic and organic fertilizer applications. Soil Tillage Res 96:166–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Li Y, Gou X, Wang G, Zhang Q, Su Q, Xiao G (2008) Heavy metal contamination and source in arid agricultural soils in central Gansu Province, China. J Environ Sci 20:607–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Li Q, Cai S, Mo C, Chu B, Peng L, Yang F (2010) Toxic effects of heavy metals and their accumulation in vegetables grown in a saline soil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 73:84–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Li QS, Chen Y, Fu HB, Cui ZH, Shi L, Wang LL, Liu ZF (2012) Health risk of heavy metals in food crops grown on reclaimed tidal flat soil in the Pearl River Estuary, China. J Hazard Mater 227:148–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Liedschulte V, Wachter A, Zhigang AT, Rausch (2010) Exploiting plants for glutathione (GSH) production: uncoupling GSH synthesis from cellular controls results in unprecedented GSH accumulation. Plant Biotechnol J 8:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Lim H-S, Lee J-S, Chon H-T, Sager M (2008) Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment in the vicinity of the abandoned Songcheon Au–Ag mine in Korea. J Geochem Explor 96:223–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Lin AJ, Zhang XH, Wong MH, Ye ZH, Lou LQ, Wang YS, Zhu YG (2007) Increase of multi-metal tolerance of three leguminous plants by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization. Environ Geochem Health 29:473–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Lindsey PA, Lineberger RD (1981) Toxicity, cadmium accumulation and ultrastructural alterations induced by exposure of Phaseolus seedlings to cadmium. Hortic Sci 16:434Google Scholar
  215. Linger P, Ostwald A, Haensel J (2005) Cannabis sativa L. growing on heavy metal contaminated soil: growth, cadmium uptake and photosynthesis. Biol Plant 49:567–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Liu Q, Wang Z, Tang H (1996) The progress of relationship between heavy metal fraction and biotoxicity and bioavailability (in Chinese). Environ Sci 17:89–92Google Scholar
  217. Liu H, Probst A, Liao B (2005a) Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China). Sci Total Environ 339:153–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Liu W, Li PJ, Qi XM, Zhou QX, Zheng L, Sun TH, Yang YS (2005b) DNA changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induced by cadmium pollution using RAPD analysis. Chemosphere 61:158–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Liu WH, Zhao JZ, Ouyang ZY, Soderlund L, Liu GH (2005c) Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metals distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. Environ Int 31:805–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Liu WX, Shen LF, Liu JW, Wang YW, Li SR (2007) Uptake of toxic heavy metals by rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivated in the agricultural soils near Zhengzhou City, People's Republic of China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 79:209–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Liu J, Zhang X-H, Tran H, Wang D-Q, Zhu Y-N (2011) Heavy metal contamination and risk assessment in water, paddy soil, and rice around an electroplating plant. Environ Sci Pollut Res 18:1623–1632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Lock K, Janssen CR (2001) Modeling zinc toxicity for terrestrial invertebrates. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:1901–1908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Lofts S, Spurgeon DJ, Svendsen C, Tipping E (2004) Deriving soil critical limits for Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb: a method based on free ion concentrations. Environ Sci Technol 38:3623–3631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. López-Millán A-F, Sagardoy R, Solanas M, Abadía A, Abadía J (2009) Cadmium toxicity in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants grown in hydroponics. Environ Exp Bot 65:376–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Loureiro S, Santos C, Pinto G, Costa A, Monteiro M, Nogueira AJ, Soares A (2006) Toxicity assessment of two soils from Jales mine (Portugal) using plants: growth and biochemical parameters. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 50:182–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Lu X, Wang L, Lei K, Huang J, Zhai Y (2009) Contamination assessment of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel in street dust of Baoji, NW China. J. Hazard Mater 161:1058–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Lugon-Moulin N, Zhang M, Gadani F, Rossi L, Koller D, Krauss M, Wagner GJ (2004) Critical review of the science and options for reducing cadmium in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and other plants. Adv Agron 83:111–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Lund W (1990) Speciation analysis—why and how. Fresenius J Anal Chem 337:557–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Luo C, Liu C, Wang Y, Liu X, Li F, Zhang G, Li X (2011) Heavy metal contamination in soils and vegetables near an e-waste processing site, south China. J Hazard Mater 186:481–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Lutz JAJ, Genter CF, Hawkins GW (1972) Effect of soil pH on element concentration and uptake by maize. II. Cu, B, Zn, Mn, Mo, Ai & Fe. Agron J 64:583–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. LWTAP (2004) Lenntech Water treatment and air purification. Water treatment. Lenntech, Rotterdamseweg, Netherlands.
  232. Madeira AC, de Varennes A, Abreu MM, Esteves C, Magalhães MCF (2012) Tomato and parsley growth, arsenic uptake and translocation in a contaminated amended soil. J Geochem Explor 123:114–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Madrid L, Díaz-Barrientos E, Madrid F (2002) Distribution of heavy metal contents of urban soils in parks of Seville. Chemosphere 49:1301–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Mahalakshmi M, Balakrishnan S, Indira K, Srinivasan M (2012) Characteristic levels of heavy metals in canned tuna fish. J Toxicol Environ Health Sci 4:43–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Mahmood Q, Ahmad R, Kwak SS, Rashid A, Anjum NA (2010) Ascorbate and glutathione: protectors of plants in oxidative stress. Ascorbate–glutathione pathway and stress tolerance in plants. Springer, pp 209–229Google Scholar
  236. Man YB, Sun XL, Zhao YG, Lopez BN, Chung SS, Wu SC et al (2010) Health risk assessment of abandoned agricultural soils based on heavy metal contents in Hong Kong, the world’s most populated city. Environ Int 36:570–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Mandal BK, Suzuki KT (2002) Arsenic round the world: a review. Talanta 58:201–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Mangabeira P, Almeida AA, Mielke M, Gomes FP, Mushrifah I, Escaig F, Laffray D, Severo MI, Oliveira AH, Galle P (2001) Ultrastructural investigations and electron probe X-ray microanalysis of chromium-treated plants. Proc. VI ICOBTE, Guelph, p 555Google Scholar
  239. Manivasagaperumal R, Vijayarengan P, Balamurugan S, Thiyagarajan G (2011) Effect of copper on growth, dry matter yield and nutrient content of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. J Phytol 3(3):53–62Google Scholar
  240. Mansour SA, Belal MH, Abou-Arab AAK, Ashour HM, Gad MF (2009) Evaluation of some pollutant levels in conventionally and organically farmed potato tubers and their risks to human health. Food Chem Toxicol 47:615–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Mapanda F, Mangwayana EN, Nyamangara J, Giller KE (2005) The effect of long-term irrigation using wastewater on heavy metal contents of soils under vegetables in Harare, Zimbabwe. Agric Ecosyst Environ 107:151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Marschner B, Kalbitz K (2003) Control of bioavailability and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter in soil. Geoderma 113:211–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Martens DC, Reed ST (1991) Zinc: unlocking agronomic potential. Solutions 29–31Google Scholar
  244. Martin MA, Pachepsky YA, Rey J-M, Taguas J, Rawls WJ (2005) Balanced entropy index to characterize soil texture for soil water retention estimation. Soil Sci 170:759–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Martinez-Valvercle I, Periage MJ, Provan G, Chesson A (2002) Phenolic compounds, lycopene and antioxidant activities in commercial varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). J Sci Food Agric 82:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Martorell I, Perelló G, Martí-Cid R, Llobet JM, Castell V, Domingo JL (2011) Human exposure to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead from foods in Catalonia, Spain: temporal trend. Biol Trace Elem Res 142:309–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Mattina MJI, White J, Eitzer B, Lannucci-Berger W (2002) Cycling of weathered chlordane residues in the environment: compositional and chiral profiles in contiguous soil, vegetation, and air compartments. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. McGraph D, Zhang CS, Carton O (2004) Geostatistical analyses and hazard assessment on soil lead in Silver mines, area Ireland. Environ Pollut 127:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. McLaughlin MJ, Parker DR, Clarke JM (1999) Metals and micronutrients-food safety issues. Field Crops Res 60:143–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. McLaughlin MJ, Smolders E, Degryse F, Rietra R (2011) Uptake of metals from soil into vegetables. In: Swartjes FA (ed) Dealing with contaminated sites. Springer, Netherlands, pp 325–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Medina A, Vassilev N, Barea JM, Azcón R (2005) Application of Aspergillus niger-treated agrowaste residue and Glomus mosseae for improving growth and nutrition of Trifolium repens in a Cd-contaminated soil. J Biotechnol 116:369–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Meers E, Ruttens A, Geebelen W, Vangronsveld J, Samson R, Vanbroekhoven K, Vandegehuchte M, Diels L, Tack FMG (2005) Potential use of the plant antioxidant network for environmental exposure assessment of heavy metals in soils. Environ Monit Assess 120:243–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Meharg AA (1993) The role of plasmalemma in metal tolerance in angiosperm. Physiol Plant 88:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Mellem JJ, Baijnath H, Odhav B (2009) Translocation and accumulation of Cr, Hg, As, Pb, Cu and Ni by Amaranthus dubius (Amaranthaceae) from contaminated sites. J Environ Sci Health Part A 44:568–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Merry RH (2001) Environmental and ecological chemistry, acidity and alkalinity of soils. CSIRO Land and Water, AdelaideGoogle Scholar
  256. Minh ND, Hough RL, Thuy LT, Nyberg Y, Mai LB, Vinh NC, Khai NM, Öborn I (2012) Assessing dietary exposure to cadmium in a metal recycling community in Vietnam: age and gender aspects. Sci Total Environ 416:164–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Mishra VK, Upadhyay AR, Tripathi BD (2009) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and two organochlorine pesticides (DDT and BHC) in crops irrigated with secondary treated waste water. Environ Monit Assess 156:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Misra SG, Mani D (1991) Soil pollution. Ashish Publishing House, Punjabi BaghGoogle Scholar
  259. Mitra AK, Haque A, Islam M, Bashar SAMK (2009) Lead poisoning: an alarming public health problem in Bangladesh. Int J Environ Res Public Health 6:84–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Mohamed AE, Rashed MN, Mofty A (2003) Assessment of essential and toxic elements in some kinds of vegetables. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 55:251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Montagne D, Cornu S, Bourennane H, Baize D, Ratié C, King D (2007) Effect of agricultural practices on trace-element distribution in soil. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 38:473–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Monteiro M, Santos C, Mann RM, Soares AMVM (2004) Physiological effects of cadmium on Lactuca sativa L. under hydroponic conditions. In: Proceedings of the Fourth SETAC World Congress and 25th Annual Meeting in North America, Portland, Oregon, USA, November 14-18, p 442Google Scholar
  263. Monteiro M, Santos C, Mann RM, Soares AMVM, Lopes T (2007) Evaluation of cadmium genotoxicity in Lactuca sativa L. using nuclear microsatellites. Environ Exp Bot 60:421–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Morton-Bermea O, Hernández-Álvarez E, González-Hernández G, Romero F, Lozano R, Beramendi-Orosco LE (2009) Assessment of heavy metal pollution in urban topsoils from the metropolitan area of Mexico City. J Geochem Explor 101:218–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Mosha TC, Gaga HE (1999) Nutritive value and effect of blanching on the trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities of selected leafy vegetables. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 54:271–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Moustakas NK, Akoumianakis KA, Passam HC (2001) Cadmium accumulation and its effect on yield of lettuce, radish and cucumber. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 32:1793–1802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Munzuroglu O, Geckil H (2002) Effects of metals on seed germination, root elongation, and coleoptile and hypocotyls growth in Triticum aestivum and Cucumis sativus. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 43:203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Munzuroglu O, Obek E, Karatas F, Tatar SY (2005) Effects of simulated acid rain on vitamins A, E, and C in strawberry (Fragaria vesca). Pak J Nutr 4(6):402–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Nabulo G, Black CR, Young SD (2011) Trace metal uptake by tropical vegetables grown on soil amended with urban sewage sludge. Environ Pollut 159:368–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Nagajyoti PC, Lee KD, Sreekanth TVM (2010) Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: a review. Environ Chem Lett 8:199–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Nagor S, Vyas AV (1997) Heavy metal induced changes in growth and carbohydrate metabolism in wheat seedlings. Indian J Environ Toxicol 7(2):98Google Scholar
  272. National Environment Protection Council (NEPC) (1999) Guideline on the investigation levels for soil and groundwater, Schedule B(1). Federal Register of Legislative Instruments F2008B00713, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  273. National Institute of Health, National Library of Medicine, Hazardous Substances Data Bank (NLM/HSDB) (2012) Hazardous Substances Data Bank.
  274. Niemeyer J, Moreira-Santos M, Nogueira M, Carvalho G, Ribeiro R, Da Silva E, Sousa J (2010) Environmental risk assessment of a metal-contaminated area in the tropics Tier I: screening phase. J Soils Sediments 10:1557–1571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Nies DH (1999) Microbial heavy-metal resistance. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 51:730–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Nigam R, Srivastava S, Prakash S, Srivastava MM (2001) Cadmium mobilization and plant availability—the impact of organic acids commonly exuded from roots. Plant Soil 230:107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Nishijo M, Satarug S, Honda R, Tsuritani I, Aoshima K (2004) The gender differences in health effects of environmental cadmium exposure and potential mechanisms. Mol Cell Biochem 255:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Noor-ul-Amin, Hussain A, Alamzeb S, Begum S (2013) Accumulation of heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables irrigated with waste water and their daily intake to adults and children, District Mardan, Pakistan. Food Chem 136:1515–1523Google Scholar
  279. Nordberg G (1996) Human cadmium exposure in the general environment and related health risks—a review. In: Sources of cadmium in the environment. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Paris, pp 94–104Google Scholar
  280. O’Halloran K (2006) Toxicological considerations of contaminants in the terrestrial environment for ecological risk assessment. Human Ecol Risk Assess 12:74–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. O’Neill (1995) Arsenic. In: Alloway BJ (ed) Heavy metals in soils. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, pp 105–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Odhav B, Beekrum S, Akula US, Baijnath H (2007) Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of traditional leafy vegetables in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. J Food Compos Anal 20:430–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Oetken M, Bachmann J, Schulte-Oehlmann U, Oehlmann J (2004) Evidence for endocrine disruption in invertebrates. Int Rev Cytol 236:1–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Oliva SR, Espinosa AJF (2007) Monitoring of heavy metals in topsoils, atmospheric particles and plant leaves to identify possible contamination sources. Microchem J 86:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Oves M, Khan MS, Zaidi A, Ahmad E (2012) Soil contamination, nutritive value, and human health risk assessment of heavy metals: an overview. Toxicol Heavy Metals Leg Biorem 1–27Google Scholar
  286. Owens G, Rahman MM, Heinrich T, Naidu R (2004) Bangladesh–Australia Centre for Arsenic Mitigation Program (BACAMP): program 3: safe food, sect. 1: arsenic food chain assessment. University of South Australia, Consultancy report for GHD Pty LtdGoogle Scholar
  287. Pandey R, Shubhashish K, Pandey J (2012) Dietary intake of pollutant aerosols via vegetables influenced by atmospheric deposition and wastewater irrigation. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 76:200–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Park JD, Cherrington NJ, Klaassen CD (2002) Intestinal absorption of cadmium is associated with divalent metal transporter 1 in rats. Toxicol Sci 68:288–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Patel SK, Shrivas K, Brandt R, Jakubowski N, Corns W, Hoffmann P (2005) Arsenic contamination in water, soil, sediment and rice of central India. Environ Geochem Health 27(2):131–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Perfect E (2003) A pedotransfer function for predicting solute dispersivity: model testing and upscaling. In: Pachepsky Y, Radcliffe DE, Selim HM (eds) Scaling methods in soil physics. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Piotrowska M, Kabata-Pendias A (1997) Impact of soils amended with Zn and Pb smelter dust on Cd concentrations in potatoes. J Geochem Explor 58:319–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Pleasants E, Sandow M, Decandido S, Waslien C, Naughton B (1992) The effect of vitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 on the toxic symptoms of cadmium exposed rats. Nutr Res 12:1393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Pourrut B, Shahid M, Douay F, Dumat C, Pinelli E (2013) Molecular mechanisms involved in lead uptake, toxicity and detoxification in higher plants. Heavy Metal Stress Plants 121–147Google Scholar
  294. Prasad MNV (1995) Cadmium toxicity and tolerance in vascular plants. Environ Exp Bot 35:525–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Prasad MNV (1999) Heavy metal stress in plants from biomolecules to ecosystem. Narosa Publishing House, New DelhiCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Price W (1945) Nutrition and physical degeneration. Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, San Diego, p 278Google Scholar
  297. Pruvot C, Douay F, Herve F, Waterlot C (2006) Heavy metals in soil, crops and grass as a source of human exposure in the former mining areas. J Soils Sediments 6:215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Qu CS, Sun K, Wang SR, Huang L, Bi J (2012) Monte Carlo simulation based health risk assessment of heavy metal pollution: a case study in Qixia mining area, China. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 18:733–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Radwan MA, Salama AK (2006) Market basket survey for some heavy metals in Egyptian fruits and vegetables. Food Chem Toxicol 44(8):1273–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Ramirez-Andreotta MD, Brusseau ML, Artiola JF, Maier RM (2013) A greenhouse and field-based study to determine the accumulation of arsenic in common homegrown vegetables grown in mining-affected soils. Sci Total Environ 443:299–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Ramos I, Esteban E, Lucena JJ, Gárate A (2002) Cadmium uptake and sub cellular distribution in plants of Lactuca sp. Cd-Mn interaction. Plant Sci 162:761–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Rashid A, Ryan J (2004) Micronutrient constraints to crop production in soils with Mediterranean type characteristic: a review. J Plant Nutr 27:959–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Rattan RK, Datta SP, Chhonkar PK, Suribabu K, Singh AK (2005) Long-term impact of irrigation with waste water effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and groundwater—a case study. Agric Ecosyst Environ 109:310–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Rodríguez-Celma J, Rellán-Álvarez R, Abadía A, Abadía J, López-Millán A-F (2010) Changes induced by two levels of cadmium toxicity in the 2-DE protein profile of tomato roots. J Proteome 73:1694–1706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Rogival D, Scheirs J, Blust R (2007) Transfer and accumulation of metals in a soil-diet-wood mouse food chain along a metal pollution gradient. Environ Pollut 145:516–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Rosselli W, Rossi M, Sasu I (2006) Cd, Cu and Zn contents in the leaves of Taraxacum officinale. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest. Snow Landsc Res 80(3):361–366Google Scholar
  307. Roth U, von Roepenack-Lahaye E, Clemens S (2006) Proteome changes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots upon exposure to Cd2+. J Exp Bot 57:4003–4013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Roychowdhury T, Tokunaga H, Ando M (2003) Survey of arsenic and other heavy metals in food composites and drinking water and estimation of dietary intake by the villagers from an arsenic-affected area of West Bengal, India. Sci Total Environ 308:15–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Ryan JA, Pahren HR, Lucas JB (1982) Controlling cadmium in the human food chain: a review and rationale based on health effects. Environ Res 28:251–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Ryu DY, Lee S, Park J, Choi DW, Klaassen CD, Park JD (2004) Dietary iron regulates intestinal cadmium absorption through iron transporters in rats. Toxicol Lett 152:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Sandaa RA, Torsvik V, Enger O, Daae FL, Castberg T, Hahn D (1999) Analysis of bacterial communities in heavy metal-contaminated soils at different levels of resolution. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 30:237–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Sandalio LM, Dalurzo HC, Gomez M, Romero-Puertas MC, del Río LA (2001) Cadmium-induced changes in the growth and oxidative metabolism of pea plants. J Exp Bot 522:115–126Google Scholar
  313. Sanita di Toppi L, Gabbrielli R (1999) Response to cadmium in higher plants. Environ Exp Bot 41:105–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Saraf A, Samant A (2013) Evaluation of some minerals and trace elements in Achyranthes aspera Linn. Int J Pharma Sci 3(3):229–233Google Scholar
  315. Sarry JE, Kuhn L, Ducruix C, Lafaye A, Junot C, Hugouvieux V et al (2006) The early responses of Arabidopsis thaliana cells to cadmium exposure explored by protein and metabolite profiling analyses. J Proteome 6:2180–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Sarwar N, Saifullah, Malhi SS, Zia MH, Naeem A, Bibia S, Farid G (2010) Role of mineral nutrition in minimizing cadmium accumulation by plants. J Sci Food Agric 90:925–929Google Scholar
  317. Sauvé S, Manna S, Turmel M-C, Roy AG, Courchesne F (2003) Solid solution partitioning of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the organic horizons of a forest soil. Environ Sci Technol 37:5191–5196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Saxena I, Shekhawat GS (2013) Nitric oxide (NO) in alleviation of heavy metal induced phytotoxicity and its role in protein nitration. A review. Nitric Oxide 32:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Sekhar KC, Chary NS, Kamla CT, Rao JV, Balaram V, Anjaneyulu Y (2003) Risk assessment and pathway study of arsenic in industrially contaminated sites of Hyderabad: a case study. Environ Int 29(5):601–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Semenzin E, Critto A, Carlon C, Rutgers M, Marcomini A (2007) Development of a site-specific ecological risk assessment for contaminated sites: part II. Multicriteria based system for the selection of bioavailability assessment tools. Sci Total Environ 379:34–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Senesia N, Orazioa VD, Riccab G (2003) Humic acids in the first generation of EUROSOILS. Geoderma 116:325–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. SEPA (1995) Environmental quality standards for soils. State Environmental Protection Administration, China, GB 15618-1995Google Scholar
  323. SEPA (2005) The limits of pollutants in food. State Environmental Protection Administration, China, GB 2762-2005Google Scholar
  324. Seregin IV, Kozhevnikova AD (2006) Physiological role of nickel and its toxic effects on higher plants. Russ J Plant Physiol 53:257–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Sessitsch A, Weilharter A, Gerzabeck MH, Kirchmann H, Kandeler E (2001) Microbial population structures in soil particle size fractions of a long-term fertilizer field experiment. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Seuntjens P, Nowack B, Schulin R (2004) Root-zone modeling of heavy metal uptake and leaching in the presence of organic ligands. Plant Soil 265:61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Sezgin N, Ozcan HK, Demir G, Nemlioglu S, Bayat C (2003) Determination of heavy metal concentrations in street dusts in Istanbul E-5 highway. Environ Int 29:979–985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Sharma SS, Dietz KJ (2009) The relationship between metal toxicity and cellular redox imbalance. Trends Plant Sci 14:43–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshal F (2009) Heavy metals in vegetables collected from production and market sites of a tropical urban area of India. Food Chem Toxicol 47:583–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Sheppard SC, Evenden WG, Abboud SA, Stephenson M (1993) A plant life-cycle bioassay for contaminated soil, with comparison to other bioassays: mercury and zinc. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 25:27–35Google Scholar
  331. Shi Z, Tao S, Pan B, Fan W, He XC, Zuo Q, Wu SP, Li BG, Cao J, Liu WX, Xu FL, Wang XJ, Shen WR, Wong PK (2005) Contamination of rivers in Tianjin, China by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Pollut 134:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Shi GL, Lou LQ, Zhang S, Xia XW, Cai QS (2013) Arsenic, copper, and zinc contamination in soil and wheat during coal mining, with assessment of health risks for the inhabitants of Huaibei, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:8435–8445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Sindern S, Lima RFS, Schwarzbauer J, Petta RA (2007) Anthropogenic heavy metal signatures for the fast growing urban area of Natal (NE-Brazil). Environ Geol 52:731–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Singh A, Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall FM (2010a) Risk assessment of heavy metal toxicity through contaminated vegetables from waste water irrigated area of Varanasi, India. Trop Ecol 51(2):375–387Google Scholar
  335. Singh R, Singh DP, Kumar N, Bhargava SK, Barman SC (2010b) Accumulation and translocation of heavy metals in soil and plants from fly ash contaminated area. J Environ Biol 31:421–430Google Scholar
  336. Sinha S, Pandey K, Gupta AK, Bhatt K (2005) Accumulation of metals in vegetables and crops grown in the area irrigated with river water. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 74:210–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Sipter E, Rózsa E, Gruiz K, Tátrai E, Morvai V (2008) Site-specific risk assessment in contaminated vegetable gardens. Chemosphere 71:1301–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Small J, Jackson T (1949) Buffer index values in relation to soil—pH tolerances. Plant Physiol 24:75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Smith SR (2009) A critical review of the bioavailability and impacts of heavy metals in municipal solid waste composts compared to sewage sludge. Environ Int 35:142–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Smolders E, Oorts K, Van Sprang P, Schoeters I, Janssen CR, McGrath SP, McLaughlin MJ (2009) Toxicity of trace metals in soil as affected by soil type and aging after contamination: using calibrated bioavailability models to set ecological soil standards. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:633–1642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Soares CR, Grazziotti FS, Siquaira PH, Carvalno JO, De JH (2001) Zinc toxicity on growth and nutrition of Eucalyptus muculata and Eucalyptus urophylla. Pesq Agrop Brasileira 36:339–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Solgi E, Esmaili-Sari A, Riyahi-Bakhtiari A, Hadipour M (2012) Soil contamination of metals in the three industrial estates, Arak, Iran. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88:634–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Solti A, Gáspár L, Mészáros I, Szigeti Z, Lévai L, Sárvári E (2008) Impact of iron supply on the kinetics of recovery of photosynthesis in Cd-stressed poplar (Populus glauca). Ann Bot 102:771–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Springob G, Tetzlaff D, Schön A, Böttcher J (2001) Quality of estimated Freundlich parameters of Cd sorption from pedotransfer functions to predict cadmium concentrations of soil solution. In: Iskandar IK, Kirkham MB (eds) Trace elements in soil. Bioavailability, flux, and transfer. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 229–245Google Scholar
  345. Srikumar TS, Ockerman PA (1990) The effects of fertilization and manuring on the content of some nutrients in potato (var. Provita). Food Chem 37:47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Stangeland T, Remberg SF, Lye KA (2009) Total antioxidant activity in 35 Ugandan fruits and vegetables. Food Chem 113:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Stasinos S, Zabetakis I (2013) The uptake of nickel and chromium from irrigation water by potatoes, carrots and onions. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 91:122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Steinkellner H, Mun-Sik K, Helma C, Ecker S, Ma TH, Horak O, Kundi M, Knasmuller S (1998) Genotoxic effects of heavy metals: comparative investigation with plant bioassays. Environ Mol Mutagen 31:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Stumm W, Morgan JJ (1996) Aquatic chemistry, 3rd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  350. Sugawara C, Sugawara N, Miyake H (1981) Decrease of plasma vitamin A, albumin and zinc in cadmium-treated rats. Toxicol Lett 8:323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Sun C, Liu J, Wang Y, Sun L, Yu H (2013) Multivariate and geostatistical analyses of the spatial distribution and sources of heavy metals in agricultural soil in Dehui, Northeast China. Chemosphere 92:517–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Suzuki N, Yamaguchi Y, Koizumi N, Sano H (2002) Functional characterization of heavy metal binding protein Cdl19 from Arabidopsis. Plant J 32:165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. Swedish National Food Administration (1984) Livsmedelskonsumtion. Uppsala, Sweden. (In Swedish.)Google Scholar
  354. Szolnoki ZS, Farsang A, Puskás I (2013) Cumulative impacts of human activities on urban garden soils: origin and accumulation of metals. Environ Pollut 177:106–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. Tatli Seven P, Yilmaz S, Seven I, Tuna Kelestemur G (2012) The effects of propolis in animals exposed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress—environmental induction and dietary antioxidants. In: Volodymyr I, Lushchak (ed) (Chapter 13)/ InTECH BOOK (ISBN 978-953-51-0553-4). doi: 10.5772/2536
  356. Tchounwou PB, Centeno JA, Patlolla AK (2004) Arsenic toxicity, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis—a health risk assessment and management approach. Mol Cell Biochem 255:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Thys C, Vanthomme P, Schrevens E, De Proft M (1991) Interactions of cadmium with zinc, copper, manganese, and iron in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in hydroponic culture. Plant Cell Environ 14:713–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. Tinsley IJ (1979) Chemical concepts in pollutants behavior. J. Willey and Sons Inc, NYGoogle Scholar
  359. Tiwari KK, Singh NK, Patel MP, Tiwari MR, Rai UN (2011) Metal contamination of soil and translocation in vegetables growing under industrial wastewater irrigated agricultural field of Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74(6):1670–1677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Tongesayi T, Fedick P, Lechner L, Brock C, Beau AL, Bray C (2013) Daily bioaccessible levels of selected essential but toxic heavy metals from the consumption of non-dietary food sources. Food Chem Toxicol 62:142–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Treder W, Cieslinski G (2005) Effect of silicon application on cadmium uptake and distribution in strawberry plants grown on contaminated soils. J Plant Nutr 28:917–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Tripathi RM, Raghunath R, Krishnamoorthy TM (1997) Dietary intake of heavy metals in Bombay City, India. Sci Total Environ 208:149–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Tsadilas CD, Karaivazoglou NA, Tsotsolis NC, Stamatiadis S, Samaras V (2005) Cadmium uptake by tobacco as affected by liming, N form, and year of cultivation. Environ Pollut 134:239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Tsai PJ, Shieh HY, Lee WJ, Lai SO (2001) Health risk assessment for workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in carbon black manufacturing industry. Sci Total Environ 278:137–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  365. Tsezos M (2009) Metal-microbes interactions: beyond environmental protection. Adv Matter Res 71–73:527–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Tufuor JK, Bentu JK, Essumang DK, Koranteng-Addo JE (2011) Analysis of heavy metals in citrus juice from the Abura–Asebu–Kwamankese District, Ghana. J Chem Pharm Res 3(2):397–402Google Scholar
  367. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program (2011) Report on carcinogens, 12 edn.
  368. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2012) Regional screening levels (Formerly PRGs)—summary table.
  369. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Integrated Risk Assessment System (USEPA/ IRIS) (2012) Integrated risk information system.
  370. Upadhyay RK, Panda SK (2009) Copper-induced growth inhibition, oxidative stress and ultrastructural alterations in freshly grown water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.). C R Biol 332(7):623–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. Upchurch RG (2008) Fatty acid unsaturation, mobilization, and regulation in the response of plants to stress. Biotechnol Lett 30:967–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. US Department of Health and Human Services (2005) Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Toxicological profile for nickel, p 32Google Scholar
  373. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2001) The role of screening-level risk assessments and refining contaminants of concern in baseline ecological risk assessments. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  374. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2005) Guidance for developing ecological soil screening levels. Office of solid waste and emergency response, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  375. USEPA (2006) USEPA Region III risk-based concentration table: technical background information. Unites States Environmental Protection Agency, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  376. USEPA (2010) Risk-based concentration table. Unites States Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed 12 Aug 2011
  377. Uusiku NP, Oelofse A, Duodu KG, Bester MJ, Faber M (2010) Nutritional value of leafy vegetables of sub-Saharan Africa and their potential contribution to human health: a review. J Food Compos Anal 23:499–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Vanassche F, Clijsters H (1986) Inhibition of photosynthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris by treatment with toxic concentration of zinc: effect on ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. J Plant Physiol 125:355–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. Vanassche F, Clijsters H (1990) Effects of metals on enzyme-activity in plants. Plant Cell Environ 13:195–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. Vasquez MD, Poschenrieder C, Barcelo J (1991) Ultrastructural effects and localization of low cadmium concentrations in bean roots. New Phytol 120:215–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Velea T, Gherghe L, Predica V, Krebs R (2009) Heavy metal contamination in the vicinity of an industrial area near Bucharest. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi: 10.1007/ s11356-008-0073-5 Google Scholar
  382. Velikova V, Tsonev T, Loreto F, Centritto M (2011) Changes in photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance to CO2, and isoprenoid emissions in Populus nigra plants exposed to excess nickel. Environ Pollut 159:1058–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Verma S, Dubey R (2003) Lead toxicity induces lipid peroxidation and alters the activities of antioxidant enzymes in growing rice plants. Plant Sci 164:645–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Vikas D, Kaushalya G, Sawhney SK (2002) Effect of lead on starch mobilization in germinating chickpea seeds. J Plant Biol 29(1):85Google Scholar
  385. Wagner GJ (1993) Accumulation of cadmium in crop plants and its consequences to human health. Adv Agron 51:173–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Wang QR, Dong Y, Cui Y, Liu X (2001) Instances of soil and crop heavy metal contamination in China. Soil Sediment Contam 10:497–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Wang X, Sato T, Xing B, Tao S (2005) Health risks of heavy metals to the general public in Tianjin, China via consumption of vegetables and fish. Sci Total Environ 350:28–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Wang AS, Angle JS, Chaney RL, Delorme TA, Reeves RD (2006a) Soil pH effects on uptake of Cd and Zn by Thlaspi caerulescens. Plant Soil 281:325–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Wang G, Su MY, Chen YH, Lin FF, Luo D, Gao SF (2006b) Transfer characteristics of cadmium and lead from soil to the edible parts of six vegetable species in southeastern China. Environ Pollut 144:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Wang H, Zhao SC, Liu RL, Zhou W, Jin JY (2009) Changes of photosynthetic activities of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings in response to cadmium stress. Photosynthetica 47(2):277–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. Wang C, Ji J, Yang Z, Chen L, Browne P, Yu R (2012a) Effects of soil properties on the transfer of cadmium from soil to wheat in the Yangtze River Delta Region, China—a typical industry–agriculture transition area. Biol Trace Elem Res. doi: 10.1007/s12011-012-9367-z Google Scholar
  392. Wang Y, Qiao M, Liu Y, Zhu YG (2012b) Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and vegetables from wastewater irrigated area, Beijing-Tianjin city cluster, China. J Environ Sci 24(4):690–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. Wang C, Yang Z, Yuan X, Browne P, Chen L, Ji J (2013a) The influences of soil properties on Cu and Zn availability in soil and their transfer to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Yangtze River delta region, China. Geoderma 193–194:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  394. Wang P, Kinraide TB, Smolders E, Zhou D-M, Menzies NW, Thakali S, Xia WW, Hao X-Z, Peijnenburg WJGM, Kopittke PM (2013b) An electrostatic model predicting Cu and Ni toxicity to microbial processes in soils. Soil Biol Biochem 57:720–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. Wani PA, Khan MS, Zaidi A (2006) An evaluation of the effects of heavy metals on the growth, seed yield and grain protein of lentil in pots. Ann Appl Biol (Suppl TAC) 27:23–24Google Scholar
  396. Waqas M, Li G, Khan S, Shamshad I, Reid BJ, Qamar Z, Chao C (2015) Application of sewage sludge and sewage sludge biochar to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and potentially toxic elements (PTE) accumulation in Tomato. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-4432-8 Google Scholar
  397. Warren GP, Alloway BJ, Lepp NW, Singh B, Bochereau FJM, Penny C (2003) Field trials to assess the uptake of arsenic by vegetables from contaminated soils and remediation with iron oxides. Sci Total Environ 311:19–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. Watanabe T, Zhang ZW, Qu JB, Gao WP, Jian ZK, Shimbo S, Nakatsuka H, Matsuda-Inoguchi N, Higashikawa K, Ikeda M (2000) Background lead and cadmium exposure of adult women in Xian City and two farming villages in Shaanxi Province, China. Sci Total Environ 247:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. Waterlot C, Bidar G, Pelfrene A, Roussel H, Fourrier H, Douay F (2013) Contamination, fractionation and availability of metals in urban soils in the vicinity of former lead and zinc Smelters, France*1. Pedosphere 23(2):43–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. Weast RC (1984) CRC handbook of chemistry and physics, 64th edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  401. Wei BG, Yang LS (2010) A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China. Microchem J 94:99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. Weldegebriel Y, Chandravanshi BS, Wondimu T (2012) Concentration levels of metals in vegetables grown in soils irrigated with river water in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 77:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. Wenzel WW, Sattler H, Jockwer F (1993) Metal hyperaccumulator plants: a survey on species to be potentially used for soil remediation. Agronomy Abstracts, p 52Google Scholar
  404. Widowati H (2012) The influence of cadmium heavy metal on vitamins in aquatic vegetables. Makara J Sci 16(1):33–38Google Scholar
  405. Wildner GF, Henkel J (1979) The effect of divalent metal ion on the activity of Mg2 + -depleted ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate oxygenase. Planta 146:223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. Williams PN, Price AH, Raab A, Hossain SA, Feldmann J, Meharg AA (2005) Variation in arsenic speciation and concentration in paddy rice related to dietary exposure. Environ Sci Technol 39:5531–5540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Wilson SC, Tighe M, Paterson E, Ashley PM (2014) Food crop accumulation and bioavailability assessment for antimony (Sb) compared with arsenic (As) in contaminated soils. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21(20):11671–11681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. Winter AR, Playle RC, George Dixon D, Borgmann U, Wilkie MP (2012) Interactions of Pb and Cd mixtures in the presence or absence of natural organic matter with the fish gill. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 83:16–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. Wong SC, Li XD, Zhang G, Qi SH, Min YS (2002) Heavy metals in agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta, South China. Environ Pollut 119:33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer (2012) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans.
  411. Wu Z, McGrouther K, Huang J, Wu P, Wu W, Wang H (2014) Decomposition and the contribution of glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) in heavy metal sequestration: field experiment. Soil Biol Biochem 68:283–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. Xu D, Chen Z, Sun K, Yan D, Kang M, Zhao Y (2013a) Effect of cadmium on the physiological parameters and the subcellular cadmium localization in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 97:147–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. Xu D, Zhou P, Zhan J, Gao Y, Dou C, Sun Q (2013b) Assessment of trace metal bioavailability in garden soils and health risks via consumption of vegetables in the vicinity of Tongling mining area, China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 90:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. Yang J, He J (1995) The tolerant mechanism of crops to Cd. Chin J Appl Ecol 6(1):87–91 (In Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  415. Yang Q-W, Li H, Long F-Y (2007) Heavy metals of vegetables and soils of vegetable bases in Chongqing, Southwest China. Environ Monit Assess 130:271–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. Yang P, Mao R, Shao H, Gao Y (2009a) The spatial variability of heavy metal distribution in the suburban farmland of Taihang Piedmont Plain, China. C R Biol 332:558–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  417. Yang Y, Zhang FS, Li HF, Jiang RF (2009b) Accumulation of cadmium in the edible parts of six vegetable species grown in Cd-contaminated soils. J Environ Manag 90:1117–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  418. Yang QW, Xu Y, Liu SJ, He JF, Long FY (2011) Concentration and potential health risk of heavy metals in market vegetables in Chongqing, China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:1664–1669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. Yargholi B, Azimi AA (2008) Investigation of cadmium absorption and accumulation in different parts of some vegetables. Am Eura J Agric Environ Sci 3(3):357–364Google Scholar
  420. Yu L, Yan-bin W, Xin G, Yi-bing S, Gang G (2006) Risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and vegetables around non-ferrous metals mining and smelting sites, Baiyin, China. J Environ Sci 18(6):1124–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. Zaidi MI, Asrar A, Mansoor A, Farooqui MA (2005) The heavy metal concentrations along roadside trees of Quetta and its effects on public health. J Appl Sci 5(4):708–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  422. Zechmann B, Müller M (2010) Subcellular compartmentation of glutathione in dicotyledonous plants. Protoplasma 246:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. Zechmeister HG, Grodzinska K, Szarek-Lukaszewska G (2003) Bryophytes. In: Markerts BA, Breure AM, Zechmeister HG (eds) Bioindicators and biomonitors. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 329–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. Zhang X, Zhang X, Gao B, Li Z, Xia H, Li H, Li J (2014) Effect of cadmium on growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition and metal accumulation of an energy crop, king grass (Pennisetum americanum 3 P. purpureum). Biomass Bioenergy 67:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  425. Zhou J, Ma D, Pan J, Nie W, Wu K (2008) Application of multivariate statistical approach to identify heavy metal sources in sediment and waters: a case study in Yangzhong, China. Environ Geol 54:373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. Zhuang P, McBride MB, Xia H, Li N, Li Z (2009) Health risk from heavy metals via consumption of food crops in the vicinity of Dabaoshan mine, South China. Sci Total Environ 407:1551–1561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. Zota AR, Schaider LA, Ettinger AS, Wright RO, Shine JP, Spengler JD (2011) Metal sources and exposures in the homes of young children living near a mining-impacted Superfund site. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 21:495–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. Zupan M, Kralj T, Grcman H, Hudnik V, Lobnik F (2003) The accumulation of Cd, Zn, Pb in Taraxacum officinale and Plantago lanceolata from contaminated soils. Proc VII ICOBTE, Uppsala SvGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anwarzeb Khan
    • 1
  • Sardar Khan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Amjad Khan
    • 1
  • Zahir Qamar
    • 1
  • Muhammad Waqas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan

Personalised recommendations