Carbon and energy fixation of great duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza growing in swine wastewater
- 406 Downloads
The ability to fix carbon and energy in swine wastewater of duckweeds was investigated using Spirodela polyrhiza as the model species. Cultures of S. polyrhiza were grown in dilutions of both original swine wastewater (OSW) and anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) based on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN). Results showed that elevated concentrations of TAN caused decreased growth, carbon fixation, and energy production rates, particularly just after the first rise in two types of swine wastewater. Also, OSW was more suitable for S. polyrhiza cultivation than ADE. Maximum carbon and energy fixation were achieved at OSW-TAN concentrations of 12.08 and 13.07 mg L−1, respectively. Photosynthetic activity of S. polyrhiza could be inhibited by both nutrient stress (in high-concentration wastewater) and nutrient limitation (in low-concentration wastewater), affecting its growth and ability for carbon-energy fixation.
KeywordsSwine wastewater Duckweed Photosynthesis Bioenergy Nutrient stress Ammonia toxicity
This research was supported by the NSFC project (51108239) and Applied Basic Research Program of Sichuan Province (2013JY0005).
This study did not involve human participants, specimens or tissue samples, or vertebrate animals, embryos, or tissues.
All information entered here has been included in the “Material and methods” section of our manuscript.
- American Public Health Association (APHA) (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st edn. APHA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- Krishnamurthy L, Zaman-Allah M, Purushothaman R, Ahmed MI, Vadez V (2011) Plant biomass productivity under abiotic stresses in sat agriculture. In: Matovic, D (ed) Biomass—detection, production and usage InTechGoogle Scholar
- Leng RA (1999) Duckweed: a tiny aquatic plant with enormous potential for agriculture and environment. Food and Agricultural Organization, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Leng RA, Stambolie JH, Bell R (1995) Duckweed—a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish. Livest Res Rural Dev 7:1–12Google Scholar
- Les DH, Crawford DJ, Landolt E, Gabel JD, Kimball RT (2002) Phylogeny and systematics of Lemnaceae, the duckweed family. Syst Bot 27:221–240Google Scholar
- Pano A, Middlebrooks EJ (1982) Ammonia nitrogen removal in facultative wastewater stabilisation ponds. J Water Pollut Control Fed 54:344–351Google Scholar
- Porra RJ, Thompson WA, Kriedemann PE (1989) Determination of accurate extinction coefficients and simultaneous equations for assaying chlorophylls a and b extracted with four different solvents: verification of the concentration of chlorophyll standards by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta 975:384–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Reddy AR, Das VSR (1986) Correlation between biomass production and net photosynthetic rates and kinetic properties of RuBP carboxylase in certain C3 plants. Bioresour Technol 10:157–164Google Scholar