Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 20, pp 15804–15811 | Cite as

Carbon and energy fixation of great duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza growing in swine wastewater

  • Wenguo Wang
  • Chuang Yang
  • Xiaoyu Tang
  • Qili Zhu
  • Ke Pan
  • Denggao Cai
  • Qichun Hu
  • Danwei Ma
Research Article


The ability to fix carbon and energy in swine wastewater of duckweeds was investigated using Spirodela polyrhiza as the model species. Cultures of S. polyrhiza were grown in dilutions of both original swine wastewater (OSW) and anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) based on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN). Results showed that elevated concentrations of TAN caused decreased growth, carbon fixation, and energy production rates, particularly just after the first rise in two types of swine wastewater. Also, OSW was more suitable for S. polyrhiza cultivation than ADE. Maximum carbon and energy fixation were achieved at OSW-TAN concentrations of 12.08 and 13.07 mg L−1, respectively. Photosynthetic activity of S. polyrhiza could be inhibited by both nutrient stress (in high-concentration wastewater) and nutrient limitation (in low-concentration wastewater), affecting its growth and ability for carbon-energy fixation.


Swine wastewater Duckweed Photosynthesis Bioenergy Nutrient stress Ammonia toxicity 



This research was supported by the NSFC project (51108239) and Applied Basic Research Program of Sichuan Province (2013JY0005).

Ethics statement

This study did not involve human participants, specimens or tissue samples, or vertebrate animals, embryos, or tissues.

All information entered here has been included in the “Material and methods” section of our manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wenguo Wang
    • 1
  • Chuang Yang
    • 2
  • Xiaoyu Tang
    • 1
  • Qili Zhu
    • 1
  • Ke Pan
    • 1
  • Denggao Cai
    • 3
  • Qichun Hu
    • 1
  • Danwei Ma
    • 2
  1. 1.Biogas Institute of Ministry of AgricultureChengduPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Life SciencesSichuan Normal UniversityChengduPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.The Second Research Institute of CAACChengduPeople’s Republic of China

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