Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 11, pp 8075–8093 | Cite as

Remediation of nitrate-contaminated water by solid-phase denitrification process—a review

  • Vaishali AshokEmail author
  • Subrata Hait
Review Article

Abstract

The paper presents a compilation of various autotrophic and heterotrophic ways of solid-phase denitrification. It covers a complete understanding of various pathways followed during denitrification process. The paper gives a brief review on various governing factors on which the process depends. It focuses mainly on the solid-phase denitrification process, its applicability, efficiency, and disadvantages associated. It presents a critical review on various methodologies associated with denitrification process reported in past years. A comparative study has also been carried out to have a better understanding of advantages and disadvantages of a particular method. We summarize the various organic and inorganic substances and various techniques that have been used for enhancing denitrification process and suggest possible gaps in the research areas whi'ch are worthy of future research.

Keywords

Denitrification Solid phase Autotrophic Heterotrophic 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Mr. Shashank and Miss Isha Medha for grammatical corrections and helpful feedback while framing the document.

References

  1. Ahn SC, Oh SY, Cha DK (2008) Enhanced reduction of nitrate by zero-valent iron at elevated temperatures. J Hazard Mater 156:17–22Google Scholar
  2. Alday JJG, Carrey R, Valiente N, Otero N, Soler A, Ayora C, Sanz D, Martin AM, Castano S, Recio C, Carnicero A, Cortijo A (2014) Denitrification in a hypersaline lake-aquifer system (Petrola Basin, Central Spain): the role of recent organic matter and Cretaceous organic rich sediments. Sci Total Environ 497–498:594–606Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez RS, Cardoso RB, Salazar M, Gomez J, Flores ER, Field JA (2007) Chemolithotrophic denitrification with elemental sulfur for groundwater treatment. Water Res 41:1253–1262Google Scholar
  4. An Y, Li T, Jin Z, Dong M, Li Q (2010) Nitrate degradation and kinetic analysis of the denitrification system composed of iron nanoparticles and hydrogenotrophic bacteria. Desalination 252:71–74Google Scholar
  5. Aravena R, Robertson WD (1998) Use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in ground water: study of nitrate from a large-flux septic system plume. Ground Water 36(6):975–982Google Scholar
  6. Auffan M, Rose J, Wiesner MR, Bottero JY (2009) Chemical stability of metallic nanoparticles: a parameter controlling their potential cellular toxicity in vitro. Environ Pollut 157:1127–1133Google Scholar
  7. Azizullah A, Khattak MNK, Richter P, Hader DP (2011) Water pollution in Pakistan and its impact on public health- a review. Environ Int 37:479–497Google Scholar
  8. Barnes RJ, Gast CJVD, Riba O, Lehtovirta LE, Prosser JI, Dobson PJ, Thompson IP (2010a) (a) The impact of zero-valent iron nanoparticles on a river water bacterial community. J Hazard Mater 184:73–80Google Scholar
  9. Barnes RJ, Riba O, Gardner MN, Singer AC, Jackman SA, Thompson IP (2010b) (b). Inhibition of biological TCE and sulphate reduction in the presence of iron nanoparticles. Chemosphere 80:554–562Google Scholar
  10. Batchelor B, Lawrence AW (1978) Autotrophic denitrification using elemental sulfur. Water Pollut Control Fed 50:1986–2001Google Scholar
  11. Bates HK, Spalding RF (1998) Aquifer denitrification as interpreted from in situ microcosm experiments. J Environ Qual 27:174–182Google Scholar
  12. Beller HR (2005) Anaerobic, nitrate-dependent oxidation of U(IV) oxide minerals by the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans. Appl Environ Microbiol 71(4):2170–2174Google Scholar
  13. Beller HR, Madrid V, Hudson GB, McNab WW, Carlsen T (2004) Biogeochemistry and natural attenuation of nitrate in groundwater at an explosives test facility. Appl Geochem 19:1483–1494Google Scholar
  14. Benyoucef N, Cheikh A, Drouiche N, Lounici H, Mameri N, Abdi N (2013) Denitrification of groundwater using Brewer’s spent grain as biofilter media. Ecol Eng 52:70–74Google Scholar
  15. Bernot MJ, Dodds WK, Gardner WS, McCarthy MJ, Sobolev D, Tank JL (2003) Comparing denitrification estimates for a Texas estuary by using acetylene inhibition and membrane inlet mass spectrometry. Appl Environ Microbiol 69(10):5950–5956Google Scholar
  16. Bhuvanesh S, Maneesh N, Sreekrishnan TR (2013) Start-up and performance of a hybrid anoxic reactor for biological denitrification. Bioresour Technol 129:78–84Google Scholar
  17. Blackmer AM, Bremner JM (1978) Inhibitory effect of nitrate on reduction of N2O to N2 by soil microorganisms. Soil Biol Biochem 10:187–191Google Scholar
  18. Blakey NC, Towler PA (1988) The effect of unsaturated/saturated zone property upon the hydrogeochemical and microbiological processes involved in the migration and attenuation of landfill leachate components. Water Sci Technol 20(3):119–128Google Scholar
  19. Bollag JM, Barabasz W (1979) Effect of heavy metals on the denitrification process in soil. J Environ Qual 8(2):196–201Google Scholar
  20. Bollag JM, Henneringer HM (1976) Influence of pesticides on denitrification in soil and with an isolated bacterium. J Environ Qual 5(1):15–18Google Scholar
  21. Bollag JM, Kurek EJ (1980) Nitrite and nitrous oxide accumulation during denitrification in the presence of pesticide derivatives. Appl Environ Microbiol 39(4):845–849Google Scholar
  22. Bottcher J, Strebel O, Voerkelius S, Schmidt HL (1990) Using isotope fractionation of nitrate-nitrogen and nitrate-oxygen for evaluation of microbial denitrification in a sandy aquifer. J Hydrol 114:413–424Google Scholar
  23. Bouletreau S, Salvo E, Lyautey E, Mastrorillo S, Garabetian F (2012) Temperature dependence of denitrification in phototrophic river biofilms. Sci Total Environ 416:323–328Google Scholar
  24. Cameron SG, Schipper LA (2010) Nitrate removal and hydraulic performance of organic carbon for use in denitrification beds. Ecol Eng 36:1588–1595Google Scholar
  25. Canziani R, Vismara R, Basillico D, ad Zinni L (1999) Nitrogen removal in fixed-bed submerged biofilters without backwashing. Water Sci Technol 40(4–5):145–152Google Scholar
  26. Cardoso RB, Alvarez RS, Rowlette P, Flores ER, Gomez J, Field JA (2006) Sulfide oxidation under chemolithoautotrophic denitrifying conditions. Biotechnol Bioeng 95(6):1148–1157Google Scholar
  27. Castilla CM, Toledo IB, Garcia MAF, Utrilla JR (2003) Influence of support surface properties on activity of bacteria immobilized on activated carbons for water denitrification. Carbon 41:1743–1749Google Scholar
  28. Cey EE, Rudolph DL, Aravena R, Parkin G (1999) Role of the riparian zone in controlling the distribution and fate of agricultural nitrogen near a small stream in southern Ontario. J Contam Hydrol 37:45–67Google Scholar
  29. Chang CC, Tseng SK, Huang HK (1999) Hydrogenotrophic denitrification with immobilized Alcaligenes eutrophus for drinking water treatment. Bioresour Technol 69:53–58Google Scholar
  30. Cheikh A, Yala A, Drouiche N, Abdi N, Lounici H, Mameri N (2013) Denitrification of water in packed beds using bacterial biomass immobilized on waste plastics as supports. Ecol Eng 53:329–334Google Scholar
  31. Chen JP, Chua ML, Zhang B (2002) Effects of competitive ions, humic acid, and pH on removal of ammonium and phosphorous from the synthetic industrial effluent by ion exchange resins. Waste Manag 22:711–719Google Scholar
  32. Chu L, Wang J (2013) Denitrification performance and biofilm characteristics using biodegradable polymers PCL as carriers and carbon source. Chemosphere 91:1310–1316Google Scholar
  33. Clauwaert P, Rabaey K, Aelterman P, Schamphelaire LD, Pham TH, Boeckx P, Boon N, Verstraete W (2007) Biological denitrification in microbial fuel cells. Environ Sci Technol 41:3354–3360Google Scholar
  34. Cordy GE, Gellenbeck DJ, Gebler JB, Anning DW, Coes AL, Edmonds RJ, Rees JAH, Sanger HW Water quality in the Central Arizona Basins, Arizona, 1995–98. US Geological Survey circular 1213. US Geological SurveyGoogle Scholar
  35. Cravotta CA (1998) Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine. Ground Water 35(6):9–19Google Scholar
  36. Cullen LG, Tilston EL, Mitchell GR, Collins CD, Shaw LJ (2011) Assessing the impact of nano- and micro-scale zerovalent iron particles on soil microbial activities: particle reactivity interferes with assay conditions and interpretation of genuine microbial effects. Chemosphere 82:1675–1682Google Scholar
  37. Cundy AB, Hopkinson L, Whitby RLD (2008) Use of iron-based technologies in contaminated land and groundwater remediation: a review. Sci Total Environ 400:42–51Google Scholar
  38. DeSimone LA, Howes BL (1998) Nitrogen transport and transformations in a shallow aquifer receiving wastewater discharge: a mass balance approach. Water Resour Res 34(2):271–285Google Scholar
  39. Devic G, Djordjevic D, Sakan S (2014) Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the groundwater quality in Serbia. Sci Total Environ 468–469:933–942Google Scholar
  40. Diao M, Yao M (2009) Use of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in inactivating microbes. Water Res 43:5243–5251Google Scholar
  41. Driscoll CT, Bisogni JJ (1978) The use of sulfur and sulfide in packed bed reactors for autotrophic denitrification. Water Pollut Control Fed 50:569–577Google Scholar
  42. Eisentraeger A, Klag P, Vansbotter B, Heymann E, Dott W (2001) Denitrification of groundwater with methane as sole hydrogen donor. Water Res 35:2261–2267Google Scholar
  43. Fellows CS, Hunter HM, Eccleston CEA, Hayr RWD, Rassam DW, Beard NJ, Bloesch PM (2011) Denitrification potential of intermittently saturated floodplain soils from a subtropical perennial stream and an ephemeral tributary. Soil Biol Biochem 43:324–332Google Scholar
  44. Flere JM, Zhang TC (1999) Nitrate removal with sulfur-limestone autotrophic denitrification processes. J Environ Eng 125:721–729Google Scholar
  45. Fukada T, Hiscock KM, Dennis PF, Grischek T (2003) A dual isotope approach to identify denitrification in groundwater at a river-bank infiltration site. Water Res 37:3070–3078Google Scholar
  46. Galloway JN, Aber JD, Erisman JW, Seitzinger SP, Howarth RW, Cowling EB, Cosby BJ (2003) The nitrogen cascade. Bioscience 53(4):341–356Google Scholar
  47. Germida JJ, Janzen HH (1993) Factors affecting the oxidation of elemental sulfur in soils. Fertil Res 35:101–114Google Scholar
  48. Gibert O, Pomierny S, Rowe I, Kalin RM (2008) Selection of organic substrates as potential reactive materials for use in a denitrification permeable reactive barrier (PRB). Bioresour Technol 99:7587–7596Google Scholar
  49. Gomez MA, Lopez JG, Garcia EH (2000) Influence of carbon source on nitrate removal of contaminated groundwater in a denitrifying submerged filter. J Hazard Mater B80:69–80Google Scholar
  50. Gong L, Huo M, Yang Q, Li J, Ma B, Zhu R, Wang S, Peng Y (2013) Performance of heterotrophic partial denitrification under feast-famine condition of electron donor: a case study using acetate as external carbon source. Bioresour Technol 133:263–269Google Scholar
  51. Green M, Tarre S, Schnizer M, Bogdan B, Armon R, Shelef G (1994) Groundwater denitrification using an upflow sludge blanket reactor. Water Res 28:631–637Google Scholar
  52. Hansen TA (1994) Metabolism of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 66:165–185Google Scholar
  53. Healy MG, Ibrahim TG, Lanigan GJ, Serrenho AJ, Fenton O (2012) Nitrate removal rate, efficiency and pollution swapping potential of different organic carbon media in laboratory denitrification bioreactors. Ecol Eng 40:198–209Google Scholar
  54. Heide CVD, Bottcher J, Deurer M, Weymann D, Well R, Duijnisveld WHM (2008) Spacial variability of N2O concentrations and of denitrification-related factors in the surficial groundwater of a catchment in Northern Germany. J Hydrol 360:230–241Google Scholar
  55. Hill AR, Devito KJ, Campagnolo S, Sanmugadas K (2000) Subsurface denitrification in a forest riparian zone: Interactions between hydrology and supplies of nitrate and organic carbon. Biogeochemistry 51:193–223Google Scholar
  56. Hiscock KM, Lloyd JW, Lerner DN (1991) Review of natural and artificial denitrification of groundwater. Water Res 25:1099–1111Google Scholar
  57. Ho CM, Tseng SK, Chang YJ (2001) Autotrophic denitrification via a novel membrane-attached biofilm reactor. Lett Appl Microbiol 33:201–205Google Scholar
  58. Hu BI, Shen LD, Xu XY, Zheng P (2011) Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in different natural ecosystems. Biochem Soc Trans 39(6):1811–1816Google Scholar
  59. Hunter WJ (2003) Accumulation of nitrite in denitrifying barriers when phosphate is limiting. J Contam Hydrol 66:79–91Google Scholar
  60. Ibendahl G, Fleming RA (2007) Controlling aquifer nitrogen levels when fertilizing crops: a study of groundwater contamination and denitrification. Ecol Model 205:507–514Google Scholar
  61. Jacinthe PA, Groffman PM, Gold AJ, Mosier A (1998) Patchiness in microbial transformations in groundwater in a riparian forest. J Environ Qual 27:156–164Google Scholar
  62. Jahangir MMR, Khalil MI, Johnston P, Cardenas LM, Hatch DJ, Butler M, Barrett M, O’flaherty V, Richards KG (2012) Denitrification potential in subsoils: a mechanism to reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater. Agric Ecosyst Environ 147:13–23Google Scholar
  63. Jahangir MMR, Johnston P, Barrett M, Khalil MI, Groffman PM, Boeckx P, Fenton O, Murphy J, Richards KG (2013) Denitrification and indirect N2O emissions in groundwater: hydrologic and biogeochemical influences. J Contam Hydrol 152:70–81Google Scholar
  64. Jiang C, Liu Y, Chen Z, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2013) Impact of iron-based nanoparticles on microbial denitrification by Paracoccus sp. Strain YF1. Aquat Toxicol 142–143:329–335Google Scholar
  65. Johnson AC, Hughes CD, Williams RJ, Chilton PJ (1998) Potential for aerobic isoproturon biodegradation and sorption in the unsaturated and saturated zones of a chalk aquifer. J Contam Hydrol 30:281–297Google Scholar
  66. Kambe TN, Okada N, Takeda M, Shigeno YA, Matsumura M, Nomura N, Uchiyama H (2005) Screening of novel cellulose-degrading bacterium and its applications to denitrification of groundwater. J Biosci Bioeng 99:429–433Google Scholar
  67. Kapoor A, Viraraghavan T (1997) Nitrate removal from drinking water-Review. J Environ Eng 123:371–380Google Scholar
  68. Karanasios KA, Vasiliadou IA, Pavlou S, Vayenas DV (2010) Hydrogenotrophic denitrification of potable water: a review. J Hazard Mater 180:20–37Google Scholar
  69. Kim HR, Lee IS, Bae JH (2004) Performance of a sulphur-utilizing fluidized bed reactor for post-denitrification. Process Biochem 39:1591–1597Google Scholar
  70. Knoller K (2005) Trettin and Strauch G. Sulphur cycling in the drinking water catchment area of Torgau-Mockritz (Germany): insights from hydrochemical and stable isotope investigations. Hydrol Process 19:3445–3465Google Scholar
  71. Knowles R (1982) Denitrification. Microbiol Rev 46:43–70Google Scholar
  72. Koenig A, Zhang T, Liu LH, Fang HP (2005) Microbial community and biochemistry process in autosulfurotrophic denitrifying biofilm. Chemosphere 58:1040–1047Google Scholar
  73. Korom SF, Schlag AJ, Schuh WM, Schlag AK (2005) In situ mesocosms: denitrification in the Elk valley aquifer. Ground Water Monit Remediat 25:79–89Google Scholar
  74. Larsen F, Postma D (1997) Nickel mobilization in a groundwater well field: release by pyrite oxidation and desorption from manganese oxides. Environ Sci Technol 31:2589–2595Google Scholar
  75. Lee KC, Rittmann BE (2002) Applying a novel autohydrogenotrophic hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor for denitrification of drinking water. Water Res 36:2040–2052Google Scholar
  76. Lee C, Kim JY, Lee WI, Nelson KL, Yoon J, Sedlak DL (2008) Bactericidal effect of zero-valent iron nanoparticles on Escherichia coli. Environ Sci Technol 42(13):4927–4933Google Scholar
  77. Leverenz HL, Haunschild K, Hopes G, Tchobanoglous G, Darby JL (2010) Anoxic treatment wetlands for denitrification. Ecol Eng 36:1544–1551Google Scholar
  78. Li P, Zuo J, Xing W, Tang L, Ye X, Li Z, Yuan L, Wang K, Zhang H (2013) Starch/polyvinyl alcohol blended materials used as solid carbon source for tertiary denitrification of secondary effluent. J Environ Sci 25(10):1972–1979Google Scholar
  79. Li R, Feng C, Chen N, Zhang B, Hao C, Peng T, Zhu X (2014) A bench-scale denitrification wall for simulating in-situ treatment of nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Ecol Eng 73:536–544Google Scholar
  80. Liu LH, Koenig A (2002) Use of limestone for pH control in autotrophic denitrification: batch experiments. Process Biochem 37:885–893Google Scholar
  81. Liu H, Jiang W, Wan D, Qu J (2009) Study of a combined heterotrophic and sulfur autotrophic denitrification technology for removal of nitrate in water. J Hazard Mater 169:23–28Google Scholar
  82. Liu SJ, Zhao ZY, Li J, Wang J, Qi Y (2013) An anaerobic two-layer permeable reactive biobarrier for the remediation of nitrate-contaminated groundwater. Water Res 47:5977–5985Google Scholar
  83. Mathiesen GB (1998) McCarty and Nielsen L.P. Denitrification and degassing in groundwater estimated from dissolved dinitrogen and argon. J Hydrol 208:16–24Google Scholar
  84. Mengis M, Schiff SL, Harris M, English MC, Aravena R, Elgood RJ, MacLean A (1999) Multiple geochemical and isotopic approaches for assessing ground water NO3 elimination in a riparian zone. Ground Water 37(3):448–457Google Scholar
  85. Mohamed MAA, Terao H, Suzuki R, Babiker IS, Ohta K, Kaoro K, Kato K (2003) Natural denitrification in the Kakamigahara groundwater basin, Gifu prefecture, central Japan. Sci Total Environ 307:191–201Google Scholar
  86. Moon HS, Chang SW, Nam K, Choe J, Kim JY (2006) Effect of reactive media composition and co-contaminants on sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification. Environ Pollut 144:802–807Google Scholar
  87. Moraes BS, Souza TSO, Foresti E (2012) Effect of sulfide concentration on autotrophic denitrification from nitrate and nitrite in vertical fixed-bed reactors. Process Biochem 47:1395–1401Google Scholar
  88. Moreno B, Gomez MA, Lopez JG, Hontoria E (2005) Inoculation of a submerged filter for biological denitrification of nitrate polluted groundwater: a comparative study. J Hazard Mater 117:141–147Google Scholar
  89. Morris JT, Whiting GJ, Chapelle FH (1988) Potential denitrification rates in deep sediments from the Southeastern Coastal Plain. Environ Sci Technol 22(7):832–836Google Scholar
  90. Naik SS, Setty YP (2011) Biological denitrification of wastewater in a fluidized bed bioreactor by immobilization of Pseudomonas Stutzeri using polypropylene granules. Int J Biotechnol Appl 3:106–109Google Scholar
  91. Nalcaci OO, Boke N, Ovez B (2011) Potential of the bacterial strain Acidovorax avenae subsp. Avenae LMG 17238 and macro algae Gracilaria verrucosa for denitrification. Desalination 274:44–53Google Scholar
  92. Nichols DS (1983) Capacity of natural wetlands to remove nutrients from wastewater. Water Pollut Control Fed 55(5):495–504Google Scholar
  93. Nolan BT, Ruddy BC, Hitt KJ, Helsel DR (1997) Risk of nitrate in groundwaters of the United States-A national perspective. Environ Sci Technol 31:2229–2236Google Scholar
  94. Otero N, Torrento C, Soler A, Mencio A, Pla JM (2009) Monitoring groundwater nitrate attenuation in a regional system coupling hydrogeology with muli-isotopic methods: the case of Plana de Vic (Osona, Spain). Agric Ecosyst Environ 133:103–113Google Scholar
  95. Ovez B (2006) Batch biological denitrification using Arundo donax, Glycyrrhiza glabra, and Gracilaria verrucosa as carbon source. Process Biochem 41:1289–1295Google Scholar
  96. Padin JV, Fernadez I, Figueroa M, Corral AM, Campos JL, Mendez R (2009) Applications of Anammox based processes to treat anaerobic digester supernatant at room temperature. Bioresour Technol 100:2988–2994Google Scholar
  97. Park JH, Shin HS, Lee IS, Bae JH (2002) Denitrification of high NO3-N containing wastewater using elemental sulfur; nitrogen loading rate and N2O production. Environ Technol 23:53–65Google Scholar
  98. Parmentier M, Ollivier P, Joulian C, Albrecht A, Hadi J, Greneche JM, Pauwels H (2014) Enhanced heterotrophic denitrification in clay media: the role of mineral electron donors. Chem Geol 390:87–99Google Scholar
  99. Pauwels H, Kloppmann W, Foucher JC, Martelat A, Fritsche V (1998) Field tracer test for denitrification in a pyrite-bearing schist aquifer. Appl Geochem 13(6):767–778Google Scholar
  100. Pauwels H, Foucher JC, Kloppmann W (2000) Denitrification and mixing in a schist aquifer: influence on water chemistry and isotopes. Chem Geol 168:307–324Google Scholar
  101. Pauwels H, Vergnaud VA, Aquilina L, Molenat J (2010) The fate of nitrogen and sulfur in hard-rock aquifers as shown by sulfate-isotope tracing. Appl Geochem 25:105–115Google Scholar
  102. Peterson ME, Curtin D, Thomas S, Clough TJ, Meenken ED (2013) Denitrification in vadose zone material amended with dissolved organic matter from topsoil and subsoil. Soil Biol Biochem 61:96–104Google Scholar
  103. Puckett LJ, Cowdery TK, McMahon PB, Tomes LH, Stoner JD (2002) Using chemical, hydrologic, and age dating analysis to delineate redox processes and flow paths in the riparian zone of a glacial outwash aquifer-stream system. Water Resour Res 38:1–19Google Scholar
  104. Puig S, Serra M, Coma M, Cabre M, Balaguer MD, Colprim J (2011) Microbial fuel cell application in landfill leachate treatment. J Hazard Mater 185:763–767Google Scholar
  105. Rivett MO, Buss SR, Morgan P, Smith JWN, Bemment CD (2008) Nitrate attenuation in groundwater: a review of biogeochemical controlling processes. Water Res 42:4215–4232Google Scholar
  106. Robertson WD, Cherry JA (1995) In situ denitrification of septic-system nitrate using reactive porous media barriers: fields trials. Ground Water 33:99–111Google Scholar
  107. Robertson WD, Merkley LC (2009) In-stream bioreactor for agricultural nitrate treatment. J Environ Qual 38:230–237Google Scholar
  108. Rocca CD, Belgiorno V, Meric S (2007) Heterotrophic/autotrophic denitrification (HAD) of drinking water: prospective use for permeable reactive barrier. Desalination 210:194–204Google Scholar
  109. Sahinkaya E, Kilic A (2014) Heterotrophic and elemental-sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification processes for simultaneous nitrate and Cr(VI) reduction. Water Res 50:278–286Google Scholar
  110. Sahinkaya E, Dursun N, Kilic A, Demirel S, Uyanik S, Cinar O (2011) Simultaneous heterotrophic and sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification process for drinking water treatment: control of sulfate production. Water Res 45:6661–6667Google Scholar
  111. Samatya S, Kabay N, Yuksel U, Arda M, Yuksel M (2006) Removal of nitrate from aqueous solution by nitrate selective ion exchange resins. React Funct Polym 66:1206–1214Google Scholar
  112. Schipper LA, Vukovic MV (2000) Nitrate removal from groundwater and denitrification rates in a porous treatment wall amended with sawdust. Ecol Eng 14:269–278Google Scholar
  113. Schipper LA, Vukovic MV (2001) Five years of nitrate removal, denitrification and carbon dynamics in a denitrification wall. Water Res 35:3473–3477Google Scholar
  114. Schipper LA, Barkle GF, Hadfield JC, Vukovic MV, Burgess CP (2004) Hydraulic constraints on the performance of a groundwater denitrification wall for nitrate removal from shallow groundwater. J Contam Hydrol 69:263–279Google Scholar
  115. Schipper LA, Cameron SC, Warneke S (2010a) Nitrate removal from three different effluents using large-scale denitrification beds. Ecol Eng 36:1552–1557Google Scholar
  116. Schipper LA, Robertson WD, Gold AJ, Jaynes DB, Cameron SC (2010b) Denitrifying bioreactors-an approach for reducing nitrate loads to receiving waters. Ecol Eng 36:1532–1543Google Scholar
  117. Schmidt CA, Clark MW (2013) Deciphering and modeling the physicochemical drivers of denitrification rates in bioreactors. Ecol Eng 60:276–288Google Scholar
  118. Schwientek M, Einsiedl F, Stichler W, Stogbauer A, Strauss H, Maloszewski P (2008) Evidence for denitrification regulated by pyrite oxidation in a heterogeneous porous groundwater system. Chem Geol 255:60–67Google Scholar
  119. Shen Z, Zhou Y, Hu J, Wang J (2013) Denitrification performance and microbial diversity in a packed-bed bioreactor using biodegradable polymer as carbon source and biofilm support. J Hazard Mater 250–251:431–438Google Scholar
  120. Shen Z, Zhou Y, Liu J, Xiao Y, Cao R, Wu F (2015) Enhanced removal of nitrate using starch/PCL blends as solid carbon source in a constructed wetland. Bioresour Technol 175:239–244Google Scholar
  121. Shin KH, Cha DK (2008) Microbial reduction of nitrate in the presence of nanoscale zero-valent iron. Chemosphere 72:257–262Google Scholar
  122. Smith RL, Duff JH (1988) Denitrification in a sand and gravel aquifer. Appl Environ Microbiol 54(5):1071–1078Google Scholar
  123. Smolders AJP, Lamers LPM, Lucassen ECHET, Velde GVD, Roelofs JGM (2006) Internal eutrophication: how it works and what to do about it- a review. Chem Ecol 22(2):93–111Google Scholar
  124. Smolders AJP, Lucassen ECHET, Bobbink R, Roelofs JGM, Lamers LPM (2010) How nitrate leaching from agricultural lands provokes phosphate eutrophication in groundwater fed wetlands: the sulphur bridge. Biogeochemistry 98:1–7Google Scholar
  125. Soares MIM (2002) Denitrification of groundwater with elemental sulphur. Water Res 36:1392–1395Google Scholar
  126. Soares MIM, Abeliovich A (1998) Wheat straw as substrate for water denitrification. Water Res 32(12):3790–3794Google Scholar
  127. Song K, Hernandez ME, Batson JA, Mitsch WJ (2013) Long-term denitrification rates in created riverine wetlands and their relationship with environmental factors. Ecol Eng. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.06.041 Google Scholar
  128. Spalding RF, Parrott JD (1994) Shallow groundwater denitrification. Sci Total Environ 141:17–25Google Scholar
  129. Starr RC, Gillham RW (1993) Denitrification and organic carbon availability in two aquifers. Ground Water 31:934–947Google Scholar
  130. Steudel R, Holdt G (1998) Solubilization of elemental sulfur in water by cationic and anionic surfactants. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 27(10):1358–1359Google Scholar
  131. Straub KL, Benz M, Schink B, Widdel F (1996) Anaerobic, nitrate-dependent microbial oxidation of ferrous iron. Appl Environ Microbiol 62(4):1458–1460Google Scholar
  132. Suthar S, Bishnoi P, Singh S, Mutiyar PK, Nema AK, Patil NS (2009) Nitrate contamination in groundwater of some rural areas of Rajasthan, India. J Hazard Mater 171:189–199Google Scholar
  133. Tong Y, He Z (2013) Nitrate removal from groundwater driven by electricity generation and heterotrophic denitrification in a bioelectrochemical system. J Hazard Mater 262:614–619Google Scholar
  134. Tong S, Zhang B, Feng C, Zhao Y, Chen N, Hao C, Pu J, Zhao L (2013) Characteristics of heterotrophic/biofilm-electrode autotrophic denitrification for nitrate removal from groundwater. Bioresour Technol 148:121–127Google Scholar
  135. Tora JA, Lafuente J, Baeza JA, Carrera J (2011) Long-term starvation and subsequent reactivation of a high-rate partial nitrification activated sludge pilot plant. Bioresour Technol 102:9870–9875Google Scholar
  136. Torrento C, Cama J, Urmeneta J, Otero N, Soler A (2010) Denitrification of groundwater with pyrite and Thiobacillus denitrificans. Chem Geol 278:80–91Google Scholar
  137. Torrento C, Urmeneta J, Otero N, Soler A, Vinas M, Cama J (2011) Enhanced denitrification in groundwater and sediments from a nitrate-contaminated aquifer after addition of pyrite. Chem Geol 287:90–101Google Scholar
  138. Tortosa G, Correa D, Raya AJS, Delgado A, Monedero MAS, Bedmar EJ (2011) Effects of nitrate contamination and seasonal variation on the denitrification and greenhouse gas production in La Rocina Stream (Donana National Park, SW Spain). Ecol Eng 37:539–548Google Scholar
  139. Trois C, Pisano G, Oxarango L (2010) Alternative solutions for the bio-denitrification of landfill leachates using pine bark and compost. J Hazard Mater 178:1100–1105Google Scholar
  140. Trudell MR, Gillham RW, Cherry JA (1986) An in-situ study of the occurrence and rate of denitrification in a shallow unconfined sand aquifer. J Hydrol 83:251–268Google Scholar
  141. Uemoto H, Morita M (2010) Nitrogen removal with a dual bag system capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Biochem Eng J 52:104–109Google Scholar
  142. Veraart AJ, Audet J, Dimitrov MR, Hoffmann CC, Gillissen F, Klein JJM (2013) Denitrification in restored and unrestored Danish streams. Ecol Eng. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.07.068 Google Scholar
  143. Vidon P, Hill AR (2004) Denitrification and patterns of electron donors and acceptors in eight riparian zones with contrasting hydrogeology. Biogeochemistry 71:259–283Google Scholar
  144. Vogel TM (1996) Bioaugmentation as a soil bioremediation approach. Curr Opin Biotechnol 7:311–316Google Scholar
  145. Vogel JC, Talma AS, Heaton THE (1981) Gaseous nitrogen as evidence for denitrification in groundwater. J Hydrol 50:191–200Google Scholar
  146. Volokita M, Belkin S, Abeliovich A, Soares MIM (1996) Biological denitrification of drinking water using newspaper. Water Res 30(4):965–971Google Scholar
  147. Wakatsuki T, Esumi H, Omura S (1993) High performance and N & P-removable on-site domestic waste water treatment system by multi-soil-layering method. Water Sci Technol 27:31–40Google Scholar
  148. Wakida FT, Lerner DN (2005) Non-agricultural sources of groundwater nitrate: a review and case study. Water Res 39:3–16Google Scholar
  149. Wan D, Liu H, Qu J, Lei P, Xiao S, Hou Y (2009) Using the combined bioelectrochemical and sulfur autotrophic denitrification system for groundwater denitrification. Bioresour Technol 100:142–148Google Scholar
  150. Wang Q, Feng C, Zhao Y, Hao C (2009) Denitrification of nitrate contaminated groundwater with a fiber-based biofilm reactor. Bioresour Technol 100:2223–2227Google Scholar
  151. Ward MH, DeKok TM, Levallois P, Brender J, Gulis G, Nolan BT, VanDerslice J (2005) Workgroup report: drinking-water nitrate and health-recent findings and research needs. Environ Health Perspect 113(11):1607–1614Google Scholar
  152. Warneke S, Schipper LA, Bruesewitz DA, Baisden WT (2011a) A comparison of different approaches for measuring denitrification rates in a nitrate removing bioreactor. Water Res 45:4141–4151Google Scholar
  153. Warneke S, Schipper LA, Matiasek MG, Scow KM, Stewart C, Bruesewit DA, McDonald IR (2011b) Nitrate removal, communities of denitrifiers and adverse effects in different carbon substances for use in denitrification beds. Water Res 45(17):5463–5475Google Scholar
  154. Watkinson JH, Blair GJ (1993) Modelling the oxidation of elemental sulfur in soils. Fertil Res 35:115–126Google Scholar
  155. Wenk CB, Blees J, Zopfi J, Veronesi M, Bourbonnais A, Schubert CJ, Niemann H, Lehmann MF (2013) Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria and sulfide-dependent denitrifiers coexist in the water column of a meromictic south-alpine lake. Limnol Oceanogr 58(1):1–12Google Scholar
  156. Weyer PJ, Cerhan JR, Kross BC, Hallberg GR, Kantamneni J, Breuer G, Jones MP, Zheng W, Lynch CF (2001) Municipal drinking water nitrate level and cancer risk in older women: the Iowa women’s health study. Epidemiology 11:327–338Google Scholar
  157. Xi Z, Guo J, Lian J, Li H, Zhao L, Liu X, Zhang C, Yang J (2013) Study the catalyzing mechanism of dissolved redox mediators on bio-denitrification by metabolic inhibitors. Bioresour Technol 140:22–27Google Scholar
  158. Xiu ZM, Jin ZH, Li TL, Mahendra S, Lowry GV, Alvarez PJJ (2010) Effects of nano-scale zero-valent iron particles on a mixed culture dechlorinating trichloroethylene. Bioresour Technol 101:1141–1146Google Scholar
  159. Xu ZX, Shao L, Yin HL, Chu HQ, Yao YJ (2009) Biological denitrification using corncobs as a carbon source and biofilm carrier. Water Environ Res 81:242–247Google Scholar
  160. Xu Y, Qiu TL, Han ML, Li J, Wang XM (2011) Heterotrophic denitrification of nitrate-contaminated water using different solid carbon sources. Procedia Environ Sci 10:72–77Google Scholar
  161. Xu D, Li Y, Howard A, Guan Y (2013) Effect of earthworm Eisenia fetida and wetland plants on nitrification and denitrification potentials in vertical flow constructed wetland. Chemosphere 92:201–206Google Scholar
  162. Yoshinari T, Hynes R, Knowles R (1977) Acetylene inhibition of nitrous oxide reduction and measurement of denitrification and nitrogen fixation in soil. Soil Biol Biochem 9:177–183Google Scholar
  163. Zhang WX (2003) Nanoscale iron particles for environmental remediation: an overview. J Nanoparticle Res 5:323–332Google Scholar
  164. Zhang Y, Angelidaki I (2013) A new method for in situ nitrate removal from groundwater using submerged microbial desalination-denitrification cell (SMDDC). Water Res 47:1827–1836Google Scholar
  165. Zhang F, He Z (2012) Integrated organic and nitrogen removal with electricity generation in a tubular dual-cathode microbial fuel cell. Process Biochem 47:2146–2151Google Scholar
  166. Zhang TC, Zeng H (2006) Development of a response surface for prediction of nitrate removal in sulfur-limestone autotrophic denitrification fixed-bed reactors. J Environ Eng 132:1068–1072Google Scholar
  167. Zhang WL, Tian ZX, Zhang N, Li XQ (1996) Nitrate pollution of groundwater in northern China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 59:223–231Google Scholar
  168. Zhang YC, Slomp CP, Broers HP, Passier HF, Cappellen PV (2009) Denitrification coupled to pyrite oxidation and changes in groundwater quality in a shallow sandy aquifer. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:6716–6726Google Scholar
  169. Zhang J, Feng C, Hong S, Hao H, Yang Y (2012) Behaviour of solid carbon sources for biological denitrification in groundwater remediation. Water Sci Technol 65(9):1696–1704Google Scholar
  170. Zhao Y, Feng C, Wang Q, Yang Y, Zhang Z, Sugiura N (2011) Nitrate removal from groundwater by cooperating heterotrophic with autotrophic denitrification in a biofilm-electrode reactor. J Hazard Mater 192:1033–1039Google Scholar
  171. Zhao Y, Zhang B, Feng C, Huang F, Zhang P, Zhang Z, Yang Y, Sugiura N (2012) Behavior of autotrophic denitrification and heterotrophic denitrification in an intensified biofilm-electrode reactor for nitrate-contaminated drinking water treatment. Bioresour Technol 107:159–165Google Scholar
  172. Zhou M, Fu W, Gu H, Lei L (2007) Nitrate removal from groundwater by a novel three-dimensional electrode biofilm reactor. Electrochim Acta 52:6052–6059Google Scholar
  173. Zhou W, Sun Y, Wu B, Zhang Y, Huang M, Miyanaga T, Zhang Z (2011) Autotrophic denitrification for nitrate and nitrite removal using sulphur-limestone. J Environ Sci 23(11):1761–1769Google Scholar
  174. Zhu J, Mulder J, Solheimslid SO, Dorsch P (2013) Functional traits of denitrification in a subtropical forest catchment in China with high Atmogenic N deposition. Soil Biol Biochem 57:577–586Google Scholar
  175. Zumft WG (1997) Cell biology and molecular basis of denitrification. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 61(4):533–616Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (IIT) KanpurKanpurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology (IIT) PatnaPatnaIndia

Personalised recommendations