A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing

Abstract

The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. ABIC (2011) Brazilian Association of Coffee Industry (Technical information)

  2. Ahmad R, Magan N (2002) Microfloral contamination and hydrolytic enzymes differences between monsooned and nonmonsooned coffees. Lett Appl Microbiol 34:279–282

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Alemayehu H, Devi R (2007) Effect of effluent generated from coffee processing plant on the water bodies and human health in its vicinity. J Hazard Mater 152:259–262

    Google Scholar 

  4. Belitz H D, Grosch W, Schieberle P (2009) Food chemistry (4th ed.) Heidelberg: Springer Chapter 21

  5. Bhumiratana N, Adhikari K, Chambers E IV (2011) Evolution of sensory aroma attributes from coffee beans to brewed coffee. Food Sci Technol 44:2185–2192

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Bonilla-Hermosa VA, Duarte WF, Schwan RF (2014) Utilization of coffee by-products obtained from semi-washed process for production of value-added compounds. Bioresour Technol 166:142–150

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Braham JE, Bressani R (1979) Coffee pulp composition technologies utilization. INCAP, Bogota, Colombia

    Google Scholar 

  8. Brohan M, Huybrighs T, Wouters C, Bruggen BV (2009) Influence of storage conditions on aroma compounds in coffee pads using static headspace GC-MS. Food Chem 116:480–483

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Cabezas MT, Flores A, Egana JI (1987) Use of coffee pulp in ruminant feeding: composition, technology and utilization. Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama, Guatemala City, pp 25–38

    Google Scholar 

  10. Carbonell AJ, Vilanova M (1974) Beneficiado rápido y eficiente del café mediante el uso de Soda Caustica. Cited by Cleves, Rodrigo. In Justificación de un proyecto para investigar Ia obtención de pectina a partir del mucIlago del café. Departamento de studios técnicos y diversificación. Proyecto 1. Subproyecto 5. Oficina de Café, San José, Costa Rica

  11. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Ministry of Environment & Forests www.cpcb.nicia

  12. Clifford MN, Kazi T (1987) The influence of coffee seed maturity on the content of chlorogenic acids, caffeine and trigonelline. Food Chem 26:59–69

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Clifford MN, Ramirez-Martinez JR (1991) Phenols and caffeine in wet-processed coffee seeds and coffee pulp. Food Chem 40:35–42

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Coffee Board of India http://www.indiacoffee.org/default.htm. (accessed December 3, 2007)

  15. Datamonitor (2010) http://www.ausfoodnews.com.au/2010/03/04/aussie-cafe-culture-accounts-for-biggest growth-in-coffee.html

  16. Domenech X, Jardim WF, Litter M (2001) Elimination of pollutants by heterogeneous photocatalysis. Latin-american cooperation CYTED. Sci & Tech for the Development, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Chapter 1, 15

    Google Scholar 

  17. Duarte G, Pereira A, Marques V, Farah A (2009) Comparison of chlorogenic acids contents in Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora and hybrids resistant to Meloidogyne exigua. Proc. 22rd Int. Conf. Coffee Sci. ASIC, Trieste, Italy 508–512

  18. Enden VJC, Calvert KC (2002a) Limit Environmental Damage By Basic Knowledge of Coffee Waste Waters. GTZ-PPP Project-Improvement of coffee quality and sustainability of coffee production in Vietnam. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coffee_wastewater>

  19. Enden V J C, Calvert Ken C (2002b) Review of Coffee Waste Water Characteristics and Approaches to Treatment. GTZ-PPP Project “Improvement of coffee quality and sustainability of coffee production in Vietnam”

  20. Esquivel P, Jiménez VM (2012) Functional properties of coffee and coffee by-products. Food Res Int 46:488–495

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Etiégni L, Orori B O, Senelwa K, Mwamburi M M, Balozi B K, Maghanga J K (2011) Ash leachate used as supporting electrolyte during wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation. Geophy Res Abs 13

  22. Fan L, Soccol CR (2005) Coffee residues. Shiitake Bag Cultivation. Chapter 4. Mushroom Grower’s Handbook 2: 92–95

  23. Fan L, Soccol AT, Pandey A, Soccol CR (2003) Cultivation of Pleurotus mushrooms on Brazilian coffee husk and effects of caffeine and tannic acid. Micol Appl Int 15(1):15–21

    Google Scholar 

  24. Frisulloa P, Laversea J, Barnabà M, Navarini L, Del Nobilea MA (2012) Coffee beans microstructural changes induced by cultivation processing: an X-ray microtomographic investigation. J Food Eng 109:175–181

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Gaime-Perraud I, Roussos S, Martínez Carrera D (1993) Natural microorganisms of the fresh coffee pulp. Micol Neotrop Appl 6:95–103

    Google Scholar 

  26. Gathuo B, Rantala P, Maatta R (1991) Coffee industry wastes. Water Water Sci Technol 24(1):53–60

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Hernández MA, Rodríguez Susa M, Andres Y (2014) Use of coffee mucilage as a new substrate for hydrogen production in anaerobic co-digestion with swine manure. Bioresour Technol 168:112–118

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Huang CP, Dong C, Tang Z (1993) Advanced chemical oxidation: its present role and potential future in hazardous waste treatment. Waste Manag 13:361–377

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Hue N V, Bittenbender H C, Ortiz-Escobar M E (2004) Managing coffee processing water in Hawaii, Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA

  30. International Coffee Organization, 2014 (ICO) http://www.ico.org/

  31. International Coffee Organization (ICO) Statistics (2011) Breakdown of exports of green Arabica and green Robusta of countries exporting significant volumes of both types of coffee. www.ico.org

  32. International Energy Initiative (IEI), 2003

  33. Kumar MB, Ulavi SU, Ramesh HS, Asha G, Pallavi R (2012) Pretreatment of coffee pulping wastewater by Fenton’s reagent. Indian J Chem Technol 19:213–217

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Martínez-Carrera D, Aguilar A, Martínez W, Bonilla M, Morales P and Sobal M (2000) Commercial Production and Marketing of Edible Mushrooms Cultivated on Coffee Pulp in Mexico Coffee Biotechnology and Quality 471–488

  35. Menezes EGT, Do-Carmo JR, Menezes AGT, Alves JGLF, Pimenta CJ, Queiroz F (2013) Use of different extracts of coffee pulp for the production of bioethanol. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 169:673–687

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Mohana VS, Nandini N, Pramila CK, Manu KJ (2011) Effect of treated and untreated coffee wastewater on growth, yield and quality of palmarosa grass (Cymbopogon martini L.) var. motia. IJRCE 1(2):111–117

    Google Scholar 

  37. Murthy PS, Madhava Naidu M (2012) Sustainable management of coffee industry by-products and value addition—a review. Resour Conserv Recycl 66:45–58

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Mussatto SI, Machado EMS, Martins S, Teixeira AJ (2011) Production, composition, and application of coffee and its industrial residues. Food Bioprocess Technol 4:661–672

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Narasimha Murthy KV, Antonette D’Sa, Gaurav Kapur (2004) An effluent treatment-cum-electricity generation option at coffee estates: is it financially feasible?. Draft version, International Energy Initiative, Bangalore

  40. Neves L, Oliveira R, Alves MM (2006) Anaerobic co-digestion of coffee waste and sewage sludge 26(2) :176–181

  41. O’Neill A, Foy RH, Phillips DH (2011) Phosphorus retention in a constructed wetland system used to treat dairy wastewater. Bioresour Technol 102:5024–5031

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Pandey A, Soccol CR, Nigam P, Brand D, Mohan R, Roussos S (2000) Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses. Biochem Eng J 6:153–162

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Ponte S (2002) The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, markets and consumption in the global coffee chain. World Dev 30(7):1099–1122

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Pujola D, Liua C, Gominhoc J, Olivellab MÀ, Fiola N, Villaescusaa I, Pereirac H (2013) The chemical composition of exhausted coffee waste. Ind Crop Prod 50:423–429

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Purseglove JW (ed.) (1976) Rubiacae In: Tropical Crops: Vol 1: Dicotyledons. Longman, London, 458–492

  46. Reich A (2010) Coffee & tea: history in a cup. The Herbanist 76:9–15

  47. Rendo’n MY, Grata˜o PL, Salva TJG, Azevedo RA, Bragagnol N (2013) Antioxidant enzyme activity and hydrogen peroxide content during the drying of arabica coffee beans. Eur Food Res Technol 236:753–758

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. RubayizA AB, Meurens M (2005) Chemical discrimination of arabica and robusta coffees by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. J Agr Food Chem 53(12):4654–4659

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Schenker S R (2000) Investigations on the Hot Air Roasting of Coffee Beans. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology

  50. Selvamurugan M, Doraisamy P, Maheswari M, Nandakumar NB (2009) High rate anaerobic treatment of coffee processing wastewater using upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor. IJEHSE 7(2):129–136

    Google Scholar 

  51. Selvamurugan M, Doraisamy P, Maheswari M, Nandakumar NB (2010) Evaluation of batch aeration as a post treatment for reducing the pollution load of biomethanated coffee processing waste water. Global J Environ Res 4(1):31–33

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. Specialty Coffee Association of Japan (SCAJ) http://www.scaj.org/

  53. Teresa ZP, Gunther G, Fernando H (2007) Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes. J Environ Sci 19:300–305

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Variyar PS, Ahmad R, Bhat R, Niyas Z, Sharma A (2003) Flavouring components of raw monsooned arabica coffee and their changes during radiation processing. J Agric Food Chem 51:7945–7950

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. Verbist B, Putra AED, Budidarsono S (2005) Factors driving land use change: effects on watershed functions in a coffee agroforestry system in Lampung, Sumatra. Agric Syst 5(3):254–270

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. World Resource Institute (2011) www.wri.org

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the director of CSIR-CFTRI for giving kind permission to publish this paper.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. K. Parande.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rattan, S., Parande, A.K., Nagaraju, V.D. et al. A comprehensive review on utilization of wastewater from coffee processing. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22, 6461–6472 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4079-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Coffee
  • Pulp
  • Wastewater
  • Mucilage