Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 2668–2678 | Cite as

Aqueous geochemistry of fluoride enriched groundwater in arid part of Western India

  • Chander Kumar Singh
  • Saumitra Mukherjee
Research Article

Abstract

Fluoride-enriched water has become a major public health issue in India. The present study tries to evaluate the geochemical mechanism of fluoride enrichment in groundwater of western India. Total 100 groundwater samples were collected for the study spreading across the entire study area. The results of the analyzed parameters formed the attribute database for geographical information system (GIS) analysis and final output maps. A preliminary field survey was conducted and fluoride testing was done using Hach make field kits. The fluoride concentration ranges from 0.08 to 6.6 mg/L (mean 2.4 mg/L), with 63 % of the samples containing fluoride concentrations that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and 85 % samples exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) guidelines of 1 mg/L. The study also reveals high concentration of nitrate that is found to be above WHO standrads. The dominant geochemical facies present in water are Na-Cl-HCO3 (26 samples), Na-Ca-Cl-HCO3 (20 samples), Na-Cl (14 samples), and Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-HCO3 (11 samples); however, sodium and bicarbonate being the major component in all the water types of 100 samples, which in fact has a tendency to increase fluoride concentration in water by dissolving fluoride from fluorite. The thermodynamic considerations between the activities of calcium, fluoride, and bicarbonate suggest that fluoride concentration is being governed by activity of calcium ion. X-ray diffraction analysis of sediments reveals calcite and fluorite are the main solubility-control minerals controlling the aqueous geochemistry of high fluoride groundwater. The results indicate that the fluoride concentration in groundwater is mainly governed by geochemical composition of rocks, such as metamorphic granites and sedimentary rocks, alkaline hydrogeological environment, climatic conditions, high temperature and lesser rainfall, and geochemical processes such as weathering, evaporation, dissolution, and ion exchange.

Keywords

Geochemical modeling Evaporation Groundwater Water facies 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are most grateful to the Brian Mailloux and Alexander van Geen of Columbia University for carrying out Ion chromatography of water samples which were tested onsite using Hach field kit for fluoride. The authors also wish to thank all of the research team members that participated in the sampling and sample analysis

References

  1. Adriano DC (1986) Trace elements in the terrestrial environment. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal V, Vaish AK, Vaish P (1997) Groundwater quality: focus on fluoride and fluorosis in Rajasthan. Curr Sci 73(9):743–746Google Scholar
  3. American Public Health Association (APHA) (2007) Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 21st edn. American Public Health Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  4. Ayenew T (2008) The distribution and hydrogeological controls of fluoride in the groundwater of central Ethiopian rift and adjacent highlands. Environ Geol 54:1313–1324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Banerjee A (2014) Groundwater fluoride contamination: a reappraisal. Geosci Front. doi: 10.1016/j.gsf.2014.03.003 Google Scholar
  6. Cao J, Zhao Y, Lin JW, Xirao RD, Danzeng SB (2000) Environmental fluoride in Tibet. Environ Res 83:333–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chae GT, Yun ST, Bernhard M, Kim KH, Kim SY, Kwon JS, Kwon K, Koh YK (2007) Fluorine geochemistry in bedrock groundwater of South Korea. Sci Total Environ 385:272–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chakrabarti S, Bhattacharya HN (2013) Inferring the hydro-geochemistry of fluoride contamination in Bankura district, West Bengal: a case study. J Geol Soc India 82(4):379–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coetsiers M, Walraevens K (2006) Chemical characterization of the neogene aquifer, Belgium. Hydrogeol 14(8):1556–1568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dai Z, Samper J, Ritzi R (2006) Identifying geochemical processes by inverse modeling of multicomponent reactive transport in the Aquia aquifer. Geosph 2(4):210–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Datta PS, Deb DL, Tyagi SK (1996) Stable isotope (O18) investigations on the processes controlling fluoride contamination of groundwater. J Contam Hydrol 24:85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deotare BC, Kajale MD, Rajaguru SN, Basavaiah N (2004) Late quaternary geomorphology, palynology and magnetic susceptibility of playas in western margin of the Indian Thar Desert. J Indian Geophys Union 8(1):15–25Google Scholar
  13. Edmunds M, Smedley P (2005) Fluoride in natural waters. In: Selnius O, Alloway B, Centeno JA, Finkleman RB, Fuge R, Lindh U, Smedley P (eds) Essentials of medical geology-impacts of the natural environment on public health. Academic, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  14. Fawell J, Bailey K, Chilton J, Dahi E, Fewtrell L, Magara Y (2006) Fluoride in drinking water. IWA, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Fordyce FM, Vrana K, Zhovinsky E, Povoroznuk V, Toth G, Hope BC, Iljinsky U, Baker JA (2007) Health risk assessment for fluoride in Central Europe. Environ Geochem Health 29:83–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Frencken JE (1992) Endemic Fluorosis in developing countries, causes, effects and possible solutions. Publication number 91.082, NIPG-TNO, Leiden, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  17. Garrels RM, Mackenzie FT (1971) Evolution of sedimentary rocks. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Genxu W, Guodong C (2001) Fluoride distribution in water and the governing factors of environment in the arid and north-west China. J Arid Environ 49:601–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Güler C, Thyne GD (2004) Hydrologic and geologic factors controlling surface and groundwater chemistry in Indian Wells-Owens Valley area, southeastern California, USA. J Hydrol 285(1):177–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guo QH, Wang YX, Ma T, Ma R (2007) Geochemical processes controlling the elevated fluoride concentrations in groundwaters of the Taiyuan basin, Northern China. J Geochem Explor 93:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gupta S, Mondal D, Bardhan A (2012) Geochemical provenance and spatial distribution of fluoride in groundwater in parts of Raniganj coal field, West Bengal, India. Arch Appl Sci Res 4(1):292–306Google Scholar
  22. Handa BK (1975) Geochemistry and genesis of fluoride containing groundwater in India. Ground Water 13:275–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hidalgo MC, Cruz-Sanjulian J (2001) Groundwater composition, hydrochemical evolution and mass transfer in a regional detrital aquifer (Baza basin, southern Spain). Appl Geochem 16(7):745–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hounslow A (1995) Water quality data: analysis and interpretation, 1st edn. CRC Lewis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  25. Hussain I, Arif M, Hussain J (2012) Fluoride contamination in drinking water in rural habitations of Central Rajasthan, India. Environ Monit Assess 184(8):5151–5158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hussain J, Husain I, Arif M (2013) Fluoride contamination in groundwater of central Rajasthan, India and its toxicity in rural habitants. Toxicol Environ Chem 95(6):1048–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jacks G, Bhattacharya P, Chaudhary V, Singh KP (2005) Controls on the genesis of some high-fluoride groundwater in India. Appl Geochem 20:221–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jha SK, Nayak AK, Sharma YK (2010) Potential fluoride contamination in the drinking water of Marks Nagar, Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Environ Geochem Health 32:217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kim K, Jeong G (2005) Factors influencing natural occurrence of fluoride-rich groundwaters: a case study in the southeastern part of the Korean Peninsula. Chemosphere 58:1399–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kim SH, Kim K, Ko KS, Kim Y, Lee KS (2012) Co-contamination of arsenic and fluoride in the groundwater of unconsolidated aquifers under reducing environments. Chemosphere 87:851–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Krauskopf KB, Bird DK (1995) Introduction to geochemistry. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Kuells C, Adar EM, Udluft P (2000) Resolving patterns of ground water flow by inverse hydrochemical modeling in a semiarid Kalahari basin. Tracers Model Hydrogeol IASH Publ 262:447–451Google Scholar
  33. Madhavan N, Subramanian V (2002) The natural abundance of fluoride in soils of the Ajmer district, Rajasthan. J Environ Monit 4:821–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Maithani PB, Gurjar R, Banerjee R, Balaji BK, Ramachandran S, Singh R (1998) Anomalous fluoride in groundwater from western part of Sirohi district, Rajasthan and its crippling effects on human health. Curr Sci 74(9):773–777Google Scholar
  35. Msonda KWM, Masamba WRL, Fabiano E (2007) A study of fluoride groundwater occurrence in Nathenje, Lilongwe, Malawi. Phys Chem Earth 32:1178–1184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Naseem S, Rafique T, Bashir E, Bhanger MI, Laghari A, Usmani TH (2010) Lithological influences on occurrence of high-fluoride groundwater in Nagar Parkar area, Thar Desert, Pakistan. Chemosphere 78(11):1313–1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Oruc N (2008) Occurrence and problems of high fluoride water in Turkey: an overview. Environ Geochem Health 30:315–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ozsvath DL (2006) Fluoride concentrations in a crystalline bedrock aquifer Marathon County, Wisconsin. Environ Geol 50(1):132–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Parkhurst DL, Appelo CAJ (1999) User’s guide to PHREEQC (Version 2)-A Computer Program for Speciation, Batch-Reaction, One-Dimensional Transport, and Inverse Geochemical Calculations. United States Geological Survey, Water Resources Investigations Report 99–4259, Washington, DC, 326Google Scholar
  40. Pickering WF (1985) The mobility of soluble fluoride in soil. Environ Pollut 9:281–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Plummer LN, Parkhurst DL, Thorstenson DC (1983) Development of reaction models for ground-water systems. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 47:665–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rafique T, Naseem S, Bhanger MI, Usmani TH (2008) Fluoride ion contamination in the groundwater of Mithi sub-district, the Thar Desert, Pakistan. Environ Geol 56:317–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rai V, Sinha AK (1990) Geological evolution of Kuchaman Lake, district Nagaur, Rajasthan. J Palaeontological Soc India 35:137–142Google Scholar
  44. Rao NVR, Rao N, Rao KSP, Schuiling RD (1993) Fluorine distribution in waters of Nalgonda District, AP, India. Environ Geol 21:89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rina K, Datta PS, Singh CK, Mukherjee S (2013) Characterization and evaluation of processes governing the groundwater quality in parts of the Sabarmati basin, Gujarat using hydrochemistry integrated with GIS. Hydrol Process 26(10):1538–1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rina K, Datta PS, Singh CK, Mukherjee S (2014) Determining the genetic origin of nitrate contamination in aquifers of Northern Gujarat, India. Environ Earth Sci 71(4):1711–1719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rwenyonyi CM, Birkeland JM, Haugejorden O, Bjorvatn K (2000) Age as a determinant of severity of dental fluorosis in children residing in areas with 0.5 and 2.5 mg fluoride per liter in drinking water. Clin Oral Investig 4:157–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Singh CK, Kumari R, Singh RP, Shashtri S, Kamal V, Mukherjee S (2011a) Geochemical modeling of high fluoride concentration in groundwater of Pokhran area of Rajasthan, India. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 86(2):152–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Singh CK, Shashtri S, Mukherjee S (2011b) Integrating multivariate statistical analysis with GIS for geochemical assessment of groundwater quality in Shiwaliks of Punjab, India. Environ Earth Sci 62(7):1387–1405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Singh CK, Shashtri S, Mukherjee S, Kumari R, Avatar R, Singh A, Singh RP (2011c) Application of GWQI to assess effect of land use change on groundwater quality in lower Shiwaliks of Punjab: remote sensing and GIS based approach. Water Resour Manag 25(7):1881–1898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Singh CK, Kumari R, Singh N, Mallick J, Mukherjee S (2012) Fluoride enrichment in aquifers of the Thar Desert: controlling factors and its geochemical modeling. Hydrol Process. doi: 10.1002/hyp.9247 Google Scholar
  52. Singh CK, Rina K, Singh RP, Mukherjee S (2014) Geochemical characterization and heavy metal contamination of groundwater in Satluj River Basin. Environ Earth Sci 71(1):201–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Suthar S, Garg VK, Jangir S, Kaur S, Goswami N, Singh S (2008) Fluoride contamination in drinking water in rural habitations of Northern Rajasthan, India. Environ Monit Assess 145(1–3):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Suttie JW (1977) Effects of fluoride on livestock. J Occup Med 19:40–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Veksler IV, Dorfman AM, Kamenetsky M, Dulski P, Dingwell DB (2005) Partitioning of lanthanides and Y between immiscible silicate and fluoride melts, fluorite and cryolite and the origin of the lanthanide tetrad effect in igneous rocks. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69(11):2847–2860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vieira APGF, Hanocock R, Eggertsson H, Everett ET, Grynpas MD (2005) Tooth quality in dental fluorosis: genetic and environmental factors. Calcif Tissue Int 76:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wenzel W, Blum WEH (1992) Fluoride speciation and mobility in fluoride contaminated soil and minerals. Soil Sci 153:357–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wu Y, Wang Y (2014) Geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity at basin scale: a case study from Datong basin, northern China. Environ Sci Process Impacts. doi: 10.1039/C4EM00019F Google Scholar
  59. Zhang B, Zhao HM, Yongsheng XL, Xuelin Z, Jun D (2003) Distribution and risk assessment of fluoride in drinking water in the west plain region of Jilin province, China. Environ Geochem Health 25:421–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhu C, Anderson G (2002) Environmental application of geochemical modeling. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Natural ResourcesTERI UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Jawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations