In vivo effects of metaldehyde on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas: comparing hemocyte parameters in two oyster families
Pollutants via run-off into the ocean represent a potential threat to marine organisms, especially bivalves such as oysters living in coastal environments. These organisms filter large volumes of seawater and may accumulate contaminants within their tissues. Pesticide contamination in water could have a direct or indirect toxic action on tissues or cells and could induce alteration of immune system. Bivalve immunity is mainly supported by hemocytes and participates directly by phagocytosis to eliminate pathogens. Some studies have shown that pesticides can reduce immune defences and/or modify genomes in vertebrates and invertebrates. Metaldehyde is used to kill slugs, snails and other terrestrial gastropods. Although metaldehyde has been detected in surface waters, its effects on marine bivalves including the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, have never been studied. Given the mode of action of this molecule and its targets (molluscs), it could be potentially more toxic to oysters than other pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, etc.). Effects of metaldehyde on oyster hemocyte parameters were thus monitored through in vivo experiments based on a short-term exposure. In this work, metaldehyde at 0.1 μg/L, which corresponds to an average concentration detected in the environment, modulated hemocyte activities of Pacific oysters after an in vivo short-term contact. Individuals belonging to two families showed different behaviours for some hemocyte activities after contamination by metaldehyde. These results suggested that effects of pollutants on oysters may differ from an individual to another in relation to genetic diversity. Finally, it appears essential to take an interest in the effects of metaldehyde on a wide variety of aquatic invertebrates including those that have a significant economic impact.
KeywordsImmunity Hemocytes Metaldehyde Pacific oyster Flow cytometry In vivo Genetic diversity
This work was partially funded through the EU project Bivalife (no. 266157) and the Poitou Charentes Region. The authors wish to thank the Ifremer hatchery team (LGPMM) in La Tremblade and the nursery team (LSPC) in Bouin for the production of Pacific oysters.
- Anderson RS (1981) Effects of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic environmental pollutants on immunological functions in marine invertebrates.Phyletic approaches to cancer. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, pp 319–331Google Scholar
- Bilan 2010 du réseau Corpep (2011) Les pesticides dans les eaux superficielles bretonnes-Bretagne Environnement. http://www.bretagne-environnement.org/Media/Documentation/Bibliographies/Les-pesticides-dans-les-eaux-superficielles-bretonnes-bilan-2010-du-reseau-Corpep
- Burgeot T, Gagnaire B, Renault C, Haure J, Moraga D, David D, Boutet I, Sauriau PG, Malet N, Bouchet V, Le Roux A, Lapègue S, Bouilly K, Le Moullac G, Arzul G, Knoery J, Bacher C, Soletchnick P (2008) Oyster summer mortality risks associated with environmental stress. Chapter 3 in Summer mortality of pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The Morest project. Edited by J.F. Samain and H. Combie. Quae Editions.107–153Google Scholar
- Cooper EL, Roch P (2003) Earthworm immunity: a model of immune competence. Pedobiologia 47(5–6):676–688Google Scholar
- Dai L, Wang W, Dong X, Hu R, Nan X (2011) Molluscicidal activity of cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum against Pomacea canaliculata and its implications for the mechanisms of toxicity. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 32(2):226–232Google Scholar
- His E, Heyvang I, Geffard O, De Montaudouin X (1999) A comparison between oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) larval bioassays for toxicological studiesGoogle Scholar
- Koner BC, Banerjee BD, Ray A (1998) Organochlorine pesticide-induced oxidative stress and immune suppression in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 36(4):395–398Google Scholar
- Luna-Acosta A, Renault T, Thomas-Guyon H, Faury N, Saulnier D, Budzinski H et al (2012) Detection of early effects of a single herbicide (diuron) and a mix of herbicides and pharmaceuticals (diuron, isoproturon, ibuprofen) on immunological parameters of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) spat. Chemosphere 87(11):1335–1340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nielsen JW (1988) "Method and composition for killing terrestrial molluscs." U.S. Patent No. 4,765,979. 23 Aug. 1988Google Scholar
- Renault T (2011) Effects of pesticides on marine bivalves: what do we know and what do we need to know? In: Stoytcheva M, editor. Pesticides in the modern world—risks and benefits [Internet]. InTech; 2011 [cited 2014 May 19]. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/pesticides-in-the-modern-world-risks-and-benefits/effects-of-pesticides-on-marine-bivalves-what-do-we-know-and-what-do-we-need-to-know-
- Triebskorn R, Henderson IF, Martin A, Kolher HR (1996) Slugs as target or non-target organisms for environmental chemicals. In: Henderson IF (ed) Slugs and Snail Pests in Agriculture. BCPC Monograph No 66: 65–72Google Scholar
- Wong S, Fournier M, Coderre D, Banska W, Krzystyniak K (1992) Environmental immunotoxicology. Animal biomarkers as pollution indicators. Springer, Netherlands, pp 167–189Google Scholar