Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 22, Issue 11, pp 8003–8009 | Cite as

In vivo effects of metaldehyde on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas: comparing hemocyte parameters in two oyster families

  • Pierrick Moreau
  • Thierry Burgeot
  • Tristan RenaultEmail author
Crop protection: environment, human health, and biodiversity

Abstract

Pollutants via run-off into the ocean represent a potential threat to marine organisms, especially bivalves such as oysters living in coastal environments. These organisms filter large volumes of seawater and may accumulate contaminants within their tissues. Pesticide contamination in water could have a direct or indirect toxic action on tissues or cells and could induce alteration of immune system. Bivalve immunity is mainly supported by hemocytes and participates directly by phagocytosis to eliminate pathogens. Some studies have shown that pesticides can reduce immune defences and/or modify genomes in vertebrates and invertebrates. Metaldehyde is used to kill slugs, snails and other terrestrial gastropods. Although metaldehyde has been detected in surface waters, its effects on marine bivalves including the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, have never been studied. Given the mode of action of this molecule and its targets (molluscs), it could be potentially more toxic to oysters than other pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, etc.). Effects of metaldehyde on oyster hemocyte parameters were thus monitored through in vivo experiments based on a short-term exposure. In this work, metaldehyde at 0.1 μg/L, which corresponds to an average concentration detected in the environment, modulated hemocyte activities of Pacific oysters after an in vivo short-term contact. Individuals belonging to two families showed different behaviours for some hemocyte activities after contamination by metaldehyde. These results suggested that effects of pollutants on oysters may differ from an individual to another in relation to genetic diversity. Finally, it appears essential to take an interest in the effects of metaldehyde on a wide variety of aquatic invertebrates including those that have a significant economic impact.

Keywords

Immunity Hemocytes Metaldehyde Pacific oyster Flow cytometry In vivo Genetic diversity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was partially funded through the EU project Bivalife (no. 266157) and the Poitou Charentes Region. The authors wish to thank the Ifremer hatchery team (LGPMM) in La Tremblade and the nursery team (LSPC) in Bouin for the production of Pacific oysters.

References

  1. Alvarez MR, Friedl FE (1992) Effects of a fungicide on in vitro hemocyte viability, phagocytosis and attachment in the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Aquaculture 107(2–3):135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson RS (1981) Effects of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic environmental pollutants on immunological functions in marine invertebrates.Phyletic approaches to cancer. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, pp 319–331Google Scholar
  3. Bates NS, Sutton NM, Campbell A (2012) Suspected metaldehyde slug bait poisoning in dogs: a retrospective analysis of cases reported to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service. Vet Rec 171(13):324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bilan 2010 du réseau Corpep (2011) Les pesticides dans les eaux superficielles bretonnes-Bretagne Environnement. http://www.bretagne-environnement.org/Media/Documentation/Bibliographies/Les-pesticides-dans-les-eaux-superficielles-bretonnes-bilan-2010-du-reseau-Corpep
  5. Blakley B, Brousseau P, Fournier M, Voccia I (1999) Immunotoxicity of pesticides: a review. Toxicol Ind Health 15(1–2):119–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burgeot T, Gagnaire B, Renault C, Haure J, Moraga D, David D, Boutet I, Sauriau PG, Malet N, Bouchet V, Le Roux A, Lapègue S, Bouilly K, Le Moullac G, Arzul G, Knoery J, Bacher C, Soletchnick P (2008) Oyster summer mortality risks associated with environmental stress. Chapter 3 in Summer mortality of pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The Morest project. Edited by J.F. Samain and H. Combie. Quae Editions.107–153Google Scholar
  7. Campbell A (2008) Metaldehyde poisoning of dogs. Vet Rec 163(11):343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Canty MN, Hagger JA, Moore RTB, Cooper L, Galloway TS (2007) Sublethal impact of short term exposure to the organophosphate pesticide azamethiphos in the marine mollusc Mytilus edulis. Mar Pollut Bull 54(4):396–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cooper EL, Roch P (2003) Earthworm immunity: a model of immune competence. Pedobiologia 47(5–6):676–688Google Scholar
  10. Dai L, Wang W, Dong X, Hu R, Nan X (2011) Molluscicidal activity of cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum against Pomacea canaliculata and its implications for the mechanisms of toxicity. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 32(2):226–232Google Scholar
  11. Dunier M, Siwicki AK (1993) Effects of pesticides and other organic pollutants in the aquatic environment on immunity of fish: a review. Fish Shellfish Immunol 3(6):423–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dunier M, Siwicki AK, Demaël A (1991) Effects of organophosphorus insecticides: effects of trichlorfon and dichlorvos on the immune response of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 22(1):79–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gagnaire B, Renault T, Bouilly K, Lapegue S, Thomas-Guyon H (2003) Study of atrazine effects on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, haemocytes. Curr Pharm Des 9(2):193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gagnaire B, Gay M, Huvet A, Daniel J-Y, Saulnier D, Renault T (2007) Combination of a pesticide exposure and a bacterial challenge: in vivo effects on immune response of Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg). Aquat Toxicol 84(1):92–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. His E, Heyvang I, Geffard O, De Montaudouin X (1999) A comparison between oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) larval bioassays for toxicological studiesGoogle Scholar
  16. Jacquet R, Miège C, Bados P, Schiavone S, Coquery M (2012) Evaluating the polar organic chemical integrative sampler for the monitoring of beta-blockers and hormones in wastewater treatment plant effluents and receiving surface waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 31(2):279–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Khakame SK, Wang X, Wu Y (2013) Baseline toxicity of metaflumizone and lack of cross resistance between indoxacarb and metaflumizone in diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). J Econ Entomol 106(3):1423–1429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Koner BC, Banerjee BD, Ray A (1998) Organochlorine pesticide-induced oxidative stress and immune suppression in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 36(4):395–398Google Scholar
  19. Koutros S, Berndt SI, Hughes Barry K, Andreotti G, Hoppin JA, Sandler DP et al (2013) Genetic susceptibility loci, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk. PLoS ONE 8(4):e58195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Larson KG, Roberson BS, Hetrick FM (1989) Effect of environmental pollutants on the chemiluminescence of hemocytes from the American oyster Crassostrea virginica. Dis Aquat Org 6(2):131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Luna-Acosta A, Renault T, Thomas-Guyon H, Faury N, Saulnier D, Budzinski H et al (2012) Detection of early effects of a single herbicide (diuron) and a mix of herbicides and pharmaceuticals (diuron, isoproturon, ibuprofen) on immunological parameters of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) spat. Chemosphere 87(11):1335–1340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mills NJ (2008) Metaldehyde poisoning of dogs. Vet Rec 163(10):310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moreau P, Burgeot T, Renault T (2014) Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) hemocyte are not affected by a mixture of pesticides in short-term in vitro assays. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21(7):4940–4949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nielsen JW (1988) "Method and composition for killing terrestrial molluscs." U.S. Patent No. 4,765,979. 23 Aug. 1988Google Scholar
  25. Renault T (2011) Effects of pesticides on marine bivalves: what do we know and what do we need to know? In: Stoytcheva M, editor. Pesticides in the modern world—risks and benefits [Internet]. InTech; 2011 [cited 2014 May 19]. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/pesticides-in-the-modern-world-risks-and-benefits/effects-of-pesticides-on-marine-bivalves-what-do-we-know-and-what-do-we-need-to-know-
  26. Russo J, Lagadic L (2004) Effects of environmental concentrations of atrazine on hemocyte density and phagocytic activity in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata). Environ Pollut 127(2):303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Segarra A, Pépin JF, Arzul I, Morga B, Faury N, Renault T (2010) Detection and description of a particular Ostreid herpesvirus 1 genotype associated with massive mortality outbreaks of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in France in 2008. Virus Res 153(1):92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Snieszko SF (1974) The effects of environmental stress on outbreaks of infectious diseases of fishes*. J Fish Biol 6(2):197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tawde SN, Puschner B, Albin T, Stump S, Poppenga RH (2012) Death by caffeine: presumptive malicious poisoning of a dog by incorporation in ground meat. J Med Toxicol 8(4):436–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Triebskorn R, Henderson IF, Martin A, Kolher HR (1996) Slugs as target or non-target organisms for environmental chemicals. In: Henderson IF (ed) Slugs and Snail Pests in Agriculture. BCPC Monograph No 66: 65–72Google Scholar
  31. Wong S, Fournier M, Coderre D, Banska W, Krzystyniak K (1992) Environmental immunotoxicology. Animal biomarkers as pollution indicators. Springer, Netherlands, pp 167–189Google Scholar
  32. Zhang H, Wang C, Lu H, Guan W, Ma Y (2011) Residues and dissipation dynamics of molluscicide metaldehyde in cabbage and soil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74(6):1653–1658CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierrick Moreau
    • 1
  • Thierry Burgeot
    • 2
  • Tristan Renault
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Unité Santé Génétique et Microbiologie des Mollusques, Laboratoire de Génétique et Pathologie des Mollusques MarinsIfremer (Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer)La TrembladeFrance
  2. 2.Research Unit of Biogeochemistry and EcotoxicologyIfremer (Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer)NantesFrance

Personalised recommendations