• Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes for removal of toxic/persistent organic pollutants from water
  • Published:

Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow. A review

Abstract

In recent years, new advanced oxidation processes based on the electrochemical technology, the so-called electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), have been developed for the prevention and remediation of environmental pollution, especially focusing on water streams. These methods are based on the electrochemical generation of a very powerful oxidizing agent, such as the hydroxyl radical (OH) in solution, which is then able to destroy organics up to their mineralization. EAOPs include heterogeneous processes like anodic oxidation and photoelectrocatalysis methods, in which OH are generated at the anode surface either electrochemically or photochemically, and homogeneous processes like electro-Fenton, photoelectro-Fenton, and sonoelectrolysis, in which OH are produced in the bulk solution. This paper presents a general overview of the application of EAOPs on the removal of aqueous organic pollutants, first reviewing the most recent works and then looking to the future. A global perspective on the fundamentals and experimental setups is offered, and laboratory-scale and pilot-scale experiments are examined and discussed.

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Abbreviations

ACP:

3-Amino-6-chloropyridazine

ADE:

Air diffusion electrode

AMI:

3-Amino-5-methylisoxazole

AO:

Anodic oxidation

AOP:

Advanced oxidation process

BDD:

Boron-doped diamond

BZQ:

p-Benzoquinone

CF:

Carbon felt

CNT:

Carbon nanotube

COD:

Chemical oxygen demand (mg of oxygen L−1)

DSA:

Dimensionally stable anode

e :

Electron

e CB :

Electron in the conduction band

E anod :

Anodic potential (V)

EAOP:

Electrochemical advanced oxidation process

E cat :

Cathodic potential (V)

EF:

Electro-Fenton

GC-MS:

Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

h :

Planck constant (6.626 × 10−34 m2 kg/s)

HPLC:

High-performance liquid chromatography

h + VB :

Positively charged vacancy or hole in the valence band

MMO:

Mixed metal oxides

PEC:

Photoelectrocatalysis

PEF:

Photoelectro-Fenton

R:

Organic compound

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

RVC:

Reticulated vitreous carbon

SE:

Sonoelectrochemistry

SPEF:

Solar photoelectro-Fenton

TOC:

Total organic carbon (mg of carbon L−1)

US:

Ultrasounds

))):

Ultrasounds

λ :

Wavelength (nm)

ν :

Frequency (Hz)

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Correspondence to Marco Panizza.

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Sirés, I., Brillas, E., Oturan, M.A. et al. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes: today and tomorrow. A review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21, 8336–8367 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-2783-1

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Keywords

  • EAOPs
  • Anodic oxidation
  • Electro-Fenton
  • Photoelectrocatalysis
  • Photoelectro-Fenton
  • Sonoelectrochemistry
  • Water treatment