Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 21, Issue 8, pp 5701–5712 | Cite as

Electrooxidation of industrial wastewater containing 1,4-dioxane in the presence of different salts

  • H. Barndõk
  • D. HermosillaEmail author
  • L. Cortijo
  • E. Torres
  • Á. Blanco
Research Article


The treatment of 1,4-dioxane solution by electrochemical oxidation on boron-doped diamond was studied using a central composite design and the response surface methodology to investigate the use of SO4 2− and HCO3 as supporting electrolytes considering the applied electric current, initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) value, and treatment time. Two industrial effluents containing bicarbonate alkalinity, one just carrying 1,4-dioxane (S1), and another one including 1,4-dioxane and 2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane (S2), were treated under optimized conditions and subsequently subjected to biodegradability assays with a Pseudomonas putida culture. Electrooxidation was compared with ozone oxidation (O3) and its combination with hydrogen peroxide (O3/H2O2). Regarding the experimental design, the optimal compromise for maximum COD removal at minimum energy consumption was shown at the maximum tested concentrations of SO4 2− and HCO3 (41.6 and 32.8 mEq L−1, respectively) and the maximum selected initial COD (750 mg L−1), applying a current density of 11.9 mA cm−2 for 3.8 h. Up to 98 % of the COD was removed in the electrooxidation treatment of S1 effluent using 114 kWh per kg of removed COD and about 91 % of the COD from S2 wastewater applying 49 kWh per kg of removed COD. The optimal biodegradability enhancement was achieved after 1 h of electrooxidation treatment. In comparison with O3 and O3/H2O2 alternatives, electrochemical oxidation achieved the fastest degradation rate per oxidant consumption unit, and it also resulted to be the most economical treatment in terms of energy consumption and price per unit of removed COD.


Electrooxidation 1,4-dioxane Boron-doped diamond Biodegradability Pseudomonas putida Central composite design Surface response methodology 



This research was funded by the European Commission (project “AQUAFIT4USE”, 211534). Archimedes Foundation (Estonia) is granting H. Barndõk’s Ph.D. studies. The collaboration of the Gas Chromatography Service (CIB) of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) is fully appreciated.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Barndõk
    • 1
  • D. Hermosilla
    • 1
    Email author
  • L. Cortijo
    • 1
  • E. Torres
    • 1
  • Á. Blanco
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain

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