Children and elders exposure assessment to particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the city of Rome, Italy
- 566 Downloads
It has been amply demonstrated that exposure to fine particulate matter, containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), may have adverse effects on human health, affecting especially the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Among population, school-age children and elders present particular susceptibilities and unique exposures to environmental factors. The study presented in this paper belongs to the Project EXPAH, founded by the European (EU) LIFE+ instrument, and consists of the personal monitoring of five elementary school children and four elders during the spring and the summer/autumn of the year 2012 in the city of Rome, Italy. The average exposure, expressed as the sum of eight high-molecular-weight PAHs, resulted equal to 0.70 ng/m3 (SD = 0.37) for children and 0.59 ng/m3 (SD = 0.23) for the elderly people. The mean levels of gravimetric PM2.5 were equal to 23 μg/m3 (SD = 10) and 15 μg/m3 (SD = 4) for children and elders, respectively. During spring and summer seasons, personal BaPeq resulted well below the EU Air Quality reference value of 1 ng/m3. The personal monitoring average values were in the same order of magnitude with available indoor and outdoor environmental data in Rome during the same periods, for both PAHs and PM2.5. The results suggest that, during non-heating seasons, the personal exposure to PAHs in the city of Rome can be mainly ascribed to the urban background, especially traffic emissions and road dust resuspension; secondhand cigarette smoke can be also considered another possible source of PAHs personal exposure.
KeywordsAir pollution Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Particulate matter Children’s health risks Personal monitoring GC-MS
The authors would like to thank the EU LIFE+ instrument, which has supported this work. The authors would also like to thank our partners within the EXPAH Project: A. Cecinato, P. Romagnoli, C. Balducci, and M. Perilli, from the National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research (CNR-IIA), who provided some essential environmental data to the study.
- A Focus for Analytical Chemistry in Europe (EURACHEM): The Fitness for Purpose of Analytical Methods: A Laboratory Guide to Method Validation and Related Topics. Teddington, Middlesex, U.K.: EURACHEM, 1998. p. 48.Google Scholar
- Chu MML, Chen CW (1984) Evaluation and estimation of potential risks of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Presented at the symposium on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the workplace. International Chemical Congress of Pacific Basin Societies, Honolulu, HIGoogle Scholar
- Forastiere F, Stafoggia M, Picciotto S, Bellander T, D’Ippoliti D, Lanki T, von Klot S, Nyberg F, Paatero P, Peters A, Pekkanen J, Sunyer J, Perucci CA (2005) A case-crossover analysis of out-of-hospital coronary deaths and air pollution in Rome, Italy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172(12):1549–1555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- International Agency for Research on Cancer: IARC (2010) Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Volume 92, Some Non-heterocyclic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Some Related Exposures. Lyon, France.Google Scholar
- Jedrychowski WA, Perera FP, Maugeri U, Mrozek-Budzyn D, Mroz E, Klimaszewska-Rembiasz M, Flak E, Edwards S, Spengler J, Jacek R, Sowa A (2010) Intrauterine exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fine particulate matter and early wheeze: prospective birth cohort study in 4 year olds. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 21:723–732Google Scholar
- Jung KH, Patel MM, Moors K, Kinney PL, Chillrud SN, Whyatt R, Hoepner L, Garfinkel R, Yan B, Ross J, Camann D, Perera FP, Miller RL (1994) Effects of heating season on residential indoor and outdoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon, and particulate matter in an urban birth cohort. Atmos Environ 44(36):4545–4552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Perera FP, Tang D, Rauh V, Tu YH, Tsai WY, Becker M, Stein JL, King J, Del Priore G, Lederman SA (2007) Relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts, environmental tobacco smoke, and child development in the World Trade Center cohort. Environ Health Perspect 115(10):1497–1502Google Scholar
- The Cooperation on International Traceability in Analytical Chemistry (CITAC) and A Focus for Analytical Chemistry in Europe (EURACHEM) (2000) CITAC/EURACHEM guide, quantifying uncertainty in analytical measurement, 2nd edn. CITAC, Eurachem, AthensGoogle Scholar