Concentrations, distributions, sources, and risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in surface water of the East Lake, China

Abstract

East Lake resides in the urban area of Wuhan City and is the largest urban lake in China. The concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in 108 surface water samples collected from the East Lake. The total concentrations of OCPs ranged from not detected to 120 ng L−1 with predominance of δ-HCH, heptachlor, and α-HCH. The mean values of HCHs and DDTs were 7.40 and 5.70 ng L−1, respectively, accounting for 40 and 31 % of the total OCPs. For the five lakelets in East Lake, Houhu Lake exhibited the highest concentrations of HCHs, DDTs, and total OCPs, which has been used actively for fisheries and surrounded by suburban rural areas and farmlands. Historical lindane or technical HCH input was probably the source of HCH, while technical DDTs might be the source of DDT in the East Lake. The ratio between heptachlor and its metabolic products indicated recent input of heptachlor. Although the combining ecological risks for all aquatic species in the East Lake calculated by species sensitivity distribution reached approximately 10−5, the OCPs in the East Lake had slight effects on aquatic organisms. The carcinogenic risks and non-carcinogenic hazard indices of DDTs and HCHs indicated that water in the East Lake was not suitable as water sources for human. However, the results indicated the water quality was safe for people to swim in the urban lake.

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Correspondence to Jun Wang.

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Responsible editor: Leif Kronberg

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Yang, Y., Yun, X., Liu, M. et al. Concentrations, distributions, sources, and risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in surface water of the East Lake, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21, 3041–3050 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2269-6

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Keywords

  • Organochlorine pesticides
  • Species sensitivity distribution
  • DDT
  • HCHs
  • Risk assessment
  • Aquatic pollution