Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 2486–2495 | Cite as

Pyrolysis temperature influences ameliorating effects of biochars on acidic soil

  • Qing Wan
  • Jin-Hua Yuan
  • Ren-Kou XuEmail author
  • Xing-Hui Li
Research Article

Abstract

The biochars were prepared from straws of canola, corn, soybean, and peanut at different temperatures of 300, 500, and 700 °C by means of oxygen-limited pyrolysis. Amelioration effects of these biochars on an acidic Ultisol were investigated with incubation experiments, and application rate of biochars was 10 g/kg. The incorporation of these biochars induced the increase in soil pH, soil exchangeable base cations, base saturation, and cation exchange capacity and the decrease in soil exchangeable acidity and exchangeable Al. The ameliorating effects of biochars on acidic soil increased with increase in their pyrolysis temperature. The contribution of oxygen-containing functional groups on the biochars to their ameliorating effects on the acidic soil decreased with the rise in pyrolysis temperature, while the contribution from carbonates in the biochars changed oppositely. The incorporation of the biochars led to the decrease in soil reactive Al extracted by 0.5 mol/L CuCl2, and the content of reactive Al was decreased with the increase in pyrolysis temperature of incorporated biochars. The biochars generated at 300 °C increased soil organically complexed Al due to ample quantity of oxygen-containing functional groups such as carboxylic and phenolic groups on the biochars, while the biochars generated at 500 and 700 °C accelerated the transformation of soil exchangeable Al to hydroxyl-Al polymers due to hydrolysis of Al at higher pH. Therefore, the crop straw-derived biochars can be used as amendments for acidic soils and the biochars generated at relatively high temperature have great ameliorating effects on the soils.

Keywords

Amelioration of acidic soil Biochar Crop straw Ultisol Soil acidity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 41230855).

References

  1. Adams F (1984) Soil acidity and liming. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America and Soil Science Society of America, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  2. Aitken RL (1992) Relationships between extractable Al, selected soil properties, pH buffer capacity and lime requirement in some acidic Queensland soils. Aust J Soil Res 30:119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boehm HP (2002) Surface oxides on carbon and their analysis: a critical assessment. Carbon 40:145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chan KY, van Zwiete L, Meazaros I, Downie A, Joseph S (2007) Agronomic values of greenwaste biochar as a soil amendment. Aust J Soil Res 45:629–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chan KY, van Zwiete L, Meazaros I, Downie A, Joseph S (2008) Poultry litter biochars as soil amendments. Aust J Soil Res 46:437–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chun Y, Sheng GY, Chiou CT, Xing BS (2004) Compositions and sorptive properties of crop residue-derived chars. Environ Sci Tech 38:4649–4655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Conyers MK (1990) The control of aluminium solubility in some acidic Australian soils. J Soil Sci 41:147–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gaskin JW, Steiner C, Harris K, Das KC, Bibens B (2008) Effect of low-temperature pyrolysis conditions on biochar for agricultural use. Trans ASABE 51:2061–2069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guo JH, Liu XJ, Zhang Y, Shen JL, Han WX, Zhang WF, Christie P, Goulding KWT, Vitousek PM, Zhang FS (2010) Significant acidification in major Chinese croplands. Science 327:1008–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hu ZY, Xu CK, Zhou LN, Sun BH, He YQ, Zhou J, Cao ZH (2007) Contribution of atmospheric nitrogen compounds to N deposition in a broadleaf forest of southern China. Pedosphere 17:360–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jeffery S, Verheijen FGA, van der Velde M, Bastos AC (2010) A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis. Agr Ecosyst Environ 144:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jiang J, Xu RK (2013) Application of crop straw derived biochars to Cu(II) contaminated Ultisol: evaluating role of alkali and organic functional groups in Cu(II) immobilization. Bioresource Technol 133:537–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jiang TY, Jiang J, Xu RK, Li Z (2012) Adsorption of Pb(II) on variable charge soils amended with rice-straw derived biochar. Chemosphere 89:249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Juo ASR, Kamprath EJ (1979) Copper chloride as an extractant for estimating the potential reactive aluminium pool in acid soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43:35–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li JY, Xu RK, Zhang H (2012) Iron oxides serve as natural anti-acidification agents in highly weathered soils. J Soil Sediment 12:876–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liao H, Yan XL, Kochian LV (2009) Plant-soil interactions at low pH: a nutriomic approach. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Plant–Soil Interactions at Low pH. South China University of Technology Press, GuangzhouGoogle Scholar
  17. Major J, Rondon M, Molina D, Riha SJ, Lehmann J (2010) Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian Savanna oxisol. Plant Soil 333:117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matus F, Garrido E, Sepúlveda N, Cárcamo I, Panichini M, Zagal E (2008) Relationship between extractable Al and organic C in volcanic soils of Chile. Geoderma 148:180–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Novak JM, Busscher WJ, Laird DL, Ahmedna M, Watts DW, Niandou MAS (2009) Impact of biochar amendment on fertility of a southeastern coastal plain soil. Soil Sci 174:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pansu M, Gautheyrou J (2006) Handbook of soil analysis—mineralogical, organic and inorganic methods. Springer, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Qian LB, Chen BL, Hu DF (2013) Effective alleviation of aluminum phytoxicity by manure-derived biochar. Environ Sci Technol 47:2737–2745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rebecca R (2007) Rethinking biochar. Environ Sci Technol 41:5932–5933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Steiner C, Teixeira WG, Lehmann J, Nehls T, de Macêdo JLV, Blum WEH, Zech W (2007) Long term effects of manure, charcoal and mineral fertilization on crop production and fertility on a highly weathered central Amazonian upland soil. Plant Soil 291:275–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Steiner C, Glaser B, Teixeira WG, Lehmann J, Blum WEH, Zech W (2008) Nitrogen retention and plant uptake on a highly weathered central Amazonian Ferralsol amended with compost and charcoal. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 171:893–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tang C, Yu Q (1999) Impact of chemical composition of legume residues and initial soil pH on pH change of a soil after residue incorporation. Plant Soil 215:29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Topoliantz S, Ponge JF, Ballof S (2005) Manioc peel and charcoal: a potential organic amendment for sustainable soil fertility in the tropics. Biol Fert Soils 41:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vogt RD, Seip HM, Larssen T, Zhao DW, Xiang RJ, Xiao JS, Luo JH, Zhao Y (2006) Potential acidifying capacity of deposition-experiences from regions with high NH4 + and dry deposition in China. Sci Total Environ 367:394–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang N, Xu RK, Li JY (2011) Amelioration of an acid Ultisol by agricultural by-products. Land Degrad Develop 22:513–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xu RK, Zhao AZ (2013) Effect of biochars on adsorption of Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) by three variable charge soils from southern China. Environ Sci Pollut Res. doi: 10.1007/s11356-013-1769-8 Google Scholar
  30. Xu RK, Coventry DR, Farhoodi A, Schultz JE (2002) Soil acidification as influenced by crop rotations, stubble management and application of nitrogenous fertiliser, Tarlee, South Australia. Aust J Soil Res 40:483–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Xu JM, Tang C, Chen ZL (2006) Chemical composition controls residue decomposition in soils differing in initial pH. Soil Biol Biochem 38:544–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yu TR (1997) Chemistry of variable charge soils. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Yuan JH, Xu RK (2011) The amelioration effects of low temperature biochar generated from nine crop residues on an acidic Ultisol. Soil Use Manage 27:110–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yuan JH, Xu RK (2012) Effects of biochars generated from crop residues on chemical properties of acid soils from tropical and subtropical China. Soil Res 50:570–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yuan JH, Xu RK, Zhang H (2011a) The forms of alkalis in the biochar produced from crop residues at different temperatures. Bioresource Technol 102:3488–3497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yuan JH, Xu RK, Qian W, Wang RH (2011b) Comparison of the ameliorating effects on an acidic Ultisol between four crop straws and their biochars. J Soil Sediment 11:741–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang HM, Wang BR, Xu MG (2008) Effects of inorganic fertilizer inputs on grain yields and soil properties in a long-term wheat-corn cropping system in south China. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 39:1583–1599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhang HM, Wang BR, Xu MG, Fan TL (2009) Crop yield and soil responses to long-term fertilization on a red soil in southern China. Pedosphere 19:199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qing Wan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jin-Hua Yuan
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ren-Kou Xu
    • 2
    Email author
  • Xing-Hui Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Tea Science Research InstituteNanjing Agriculture UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.University of the Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations