Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 2455–2464 | Cite as

Speciation of metals in contaminated sediments from Oskarshamn Harbor, Oskarshamn, Sweden

  • Homayoun Fathollahzadeh
  • Fabio KaczalaEmail author
  • Amit Bhatnagar
  • William Hogland
Research Article


Bottom sediments in coastal regions have been considered the ultimate sink for a number of contaminants, e.g., toxic metals. In this current study, speciation of metals in contaminated sediments of Oskarshamn harbor in the southeast of Sweden was performed in order to evaluate metal contents and their potential mobility and bioavailability. Sediment speciation was carried out by the sequential extraction BCR procedure for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn and the exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3), and residual (R) fractions were determined. The results have shown that Zn and Cd were highly associated with the exchangeable fraction (F1) with 42–58 % and 43–46 %, respectively, of their total concentrations in the mobile phase. The assessment of sediment contamination on the basis of quality guidelines established by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) and the Italian Ministry of Environment (Venice protocol for dredged sediments) has shown that sediments from Oskarshamn harbor are highly contaminated with toxic metals, especially Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, As, and Zn posing potential ecological risks. Therefore, it is of crucial importance the implementation of adequate strategies to tackle contaminated sediments in coastal regions all over the world.


Dredging Sediments Harbor Speciation Sequential extraction Metals 



This work was supported by NOVA FoU (Center for University Studies, Research and Development). Special thanks are given to Dr. Roland Engkvist for crucial help during sampling events. Ms Sara Gunnarsson and Jean-Christophe De Bortoli are gratefully acknowledged for their assistance and help in laboratory works.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Homayoun Fathollahzadeh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fabio Kaczala
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amit Bhatnagar
    • 1
  • William Hogland
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Faculty of Health and Life SciencesLinnaeus UniversityKalmarSweden
  2. 2.Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural SciencesSwedish University of Agricultural SciencesUppsalaSweden

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