Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 2531–2539 | Cite as

Use of hairy roots extracts for 2,4-DCP removal and toxicity evaluation by Lactuca sativa test

  • Vanina A. Angelini
  • Elizabeth Agostini
  • María I. Medina
  • Paola S. GonzálezEmail author
Research Article


2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) is widely distributed in wastewaters discharged from several industries, and it is considered as a priority pollutant due to its high toxicity. In this study, the use of different peroxidase extracts for 2,4-DCP removal from aqueous solutions was investigated. Tobacco hairy roots (HRs), wild-type (WT), and double-transgenic (DT) for tomato basic peroxidases (TPX1 and TPX2) were used to obtain different peroxidase extracts: total peroxidases (TPx), soluble peroxidases (SPx), and peroxidases ionically bound to the cell wall (IBPx). All extracts derived from DT HRs exhibited higher peroxidase activity than those obtained from WT HRs. TPx and IBPx DT extracts showed the highest catalytic efficiency values. The optimal conditions for 2,4-DCP oxidation were pH 6.5, H2O2 0.5 mM, and 200 U mL−1 of enzyme, for all extracts analyzed. Although both TPx extracts were able to oxidize different 2,4-DCP concentrations, the removal efficiency was higher for TPx DT. Polyethylene glycol addition slightly improved 2,4-DCP removal efficiency, and it showed some protective effect on TPx WT after 2,4-DCP oxidation. In addition, using Lactuca sativa test, a reduction of the toxicity of post removal solutions was observed, for both TPx extracts. The results demonstrate that TPx extracts from both tobacco HRs appear to be promising candidate for future applications in removing 2,4-DCP from wastewaters. This is particularly true considering that these peroxidase sources are associated with low costs and are readily available. However, TPx DT has increased peroxidase activity, catalytic efficiency, and higher removal efficiency than TPx WT, probably due to the expression of TPX1 and TPX2 isoenzymes.


Removal 2,4-DCP Hairy roots Polyethylene glycol L. sativa test 





Hairy roots








Total peroxidases


Soluble peroxidases


Ionically bound to the cell wall peroxidases


Polyethylene glycol


Post-removal solutions



V.A.A. had a fellowship from CONICET; P.S.G and E.A. are members of the research program from Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina). We wish to thank PPI (SECyT-UNRC), CONICET, and Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología de Córdoba for financial support.

Supplementary material

11356_2013_2172_MOESM1_ESM.docx (82 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 81 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vanina A. Angelini
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Agostini
    • 1
  • María I. Medina
    • 1
  • Paola S. González
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Biología Molecular, FCEFQNUniversidad Nacional de Río CuartoRío CuartoArgentina

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