Apple snail Pomacea canaliculata has been reported to accumulate polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and was recently proposed as PBDE bioindicator. This work investigates the ability of P. canaliculata to accumulate BDE-209 by dietary exposure under controlled experimental conditions. A 30-day long enrichment feeding assay was carried out using 30 adult apple snails, placed in individual aquaria. Food was enriched at three BDE-209 concentrations (400, 4,700, and 8,300 μg g−1 lipid weight). Correlation between BDE-209 values in food and snail tissue were estimated according to Stockholm Convention suggested criteria for chemicals with KOW >5. All animals survived with no evident physical alterations, and all of them accumulated BDE-209. BDE-209 levels in tissue samples increased exponentially with the exposure concentration. The bioaccumulation factor vs. food concentration plot showed a peculiar pattern, in which at intermediate concentrations the snails accumulated less BDE-209 than expected. Our results suggest that P. canaliculata would present a detoxification mechanism for BDE-209 different from the most commonly reported metabolic pathways.
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This research was supported by Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica–Fondo para la Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT-FONCyT), and Secretaría de Ciencia Técnica y Postgrado de la Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (SECTyP-UNCuyo). We would like to thank to the Laboratorio de Investigaciones y Servicios Ambientales Mendoza (LISAMEN) for technical assistance and Dr. Alfredo Castro Vazquez for providing the snails. JCA and NBL acknowledge the provision of Erasmus Mundus scholarship for their visit to Toxicological center at University of Antwerp, Belgium. AC acknowledges the Flanders Foundation for Scientific Funds (FWO) and the University of Antwerp for financial support.
Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues
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Koch, E., Altamirano, J.C., Covaci, A. et al. Should apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae) be used as bioindicator for BDE-209?. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21, 761–765 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2109-8