Development of freshwater sediment management standards for organic matters, nutrients, and metals in Korea
Korean water quality managers are required to promptly develop national assessment standards for freshwater sediment quality due to the Four Major River Restoration Project in Korea in 2009. We conducted this study to develop sediment management standards (SMSs), determining obviously and severely polluted sediment, which could have adverse impacts on water quality and aquatic ecosystem. The SMSs values were derived from the 95th percentile of concentration distribution for organic matter and nutrients in sediment quality database. For the SMSs of metals, foreign sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) were adopted. As a result, 13 % for loss on ignition (LOI), 1,600 mg/kg for total phosphorus (TP), and 5,600 mg/kg for total nitrogen (TN) were set as the SMSs for freshwater sediment in Korea. These values were higher than the range of heavily polluted sediment from USEPA Region 5 guideline derived by the similar approaches for the Great Lakes harbor sediments, and similar or lower than the severe effect level (SEL) from provincial sediment quality guideline (PSQG) of Ontario, Canada by screening level concentration (SLC) approach. However, SMSs in the present study are appropriate considering the concentration ranges and the Korean SMSs’ definition for freshwater sediments in Korea. The Puget Sound marine sediment cleanup screening level (CSL) in Washington State, USA were adopted as the Korean SMSs for As (93 mg/kg), Cd (6.7 mg/kg), Cr (270 mg/kg), Cu (390 mg/kg), Pb (530 mg/kg), and Zn (960 mg/kg) in freshwater sediments. Hg concentration (0.59 mg/kg) of CSL was too low to determine the polluted freshwater sediments in Korea, and the SEL of Ontario, Canada for mercury concentration (2 mg/kg) was selected as the SMS for Hg. These values were found reasonable through the assessment of applicability with the datasets from locations directly affected by obvious point sources. These results indicate that SMSs for organic matter, nutrient, and metals derived within the present study can successfully determine obviously and severely polluted sediment in Korea. However, the SMSs have limits to specifically determine the effects of polluted sediment on water quality and aquatic ecosystem in Korea. Thus, we will revise and specify SMSs considering those effects and further sediment quality assessment framework in the near future.
KeywordsSediment management standards Organic matters Nutrients Metals Water quality Korea
Since 1970, numerous sediment quality standards, criteria, and guidelines have been proposed in many parts of the world (Babut et al. 2005; Bay et al. 2012). One of the first approaches to derive sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) was based on the background or reference values (Lyman et al. 1987). Other approaches can be categorized into three groups: (1) empirical, effect-based ones which establish relationship between sediment concentration and toxicity response (e.g., the apparent effects thresholds (AETs) (Tetra Tech 1986), effect range low and medium (ERLs/ERMs) values (Long et al. 1995), and threshold and probable effect levels (TELs/PELs) (Smith et al. 1996)); (2) theoretically based ones which account for differences in bioavailability of the pollutants through equilibrium partitioning (EqP) (USEPA 1989); and (3) ecosystem-oriented ones (e.g., lowest and severe effect levels (LELs/SELs) (Neff 1986) and field-based species sensitivity distributions (f-SSDs)) (Leung et al. 2005). In an effort to harmonize between the different SQGs, MacDonald et al. (2000) developed consensus-based SQGs, the geometric means of various guidelines (Long and MacDonald 1998; MacDonald et al. 2000). The Netherlands set the target values (T.V.s) and intervention values (I.V.s) in legislations, and the Washington State enacted marine sediment quality standard and cleanup screening level (CSL) (NIER 2011a). Recently, Flemish Government also incorporated freshwater SQGs into legislation (de Deckere et al. 2011). In Korea, the Ministry of Land, Transport, and Maritime Affairs (MLTM) has proposed standards for cleaning up polluted marine sediments to protect coastal ecosystems in 2005 and enacted sediment environmental quality standards (SEQSs) in 2011(MLTM 2005). As for freshwater sediments, neither cleanup nor environmental standards existed in Korea. Water quality managers from the Korean Ministry of Environment began developing national sediment management standards (SMSs) in 2007. Due to the Four Major River Restoration Project in 2009, SMSs have become a necessity for the determination of the polluted freshwater sediment. During the dredging process, several environmental problems arose such as sediment contamination, water pollution, and the impact of dredged sediments on soil in farmland that is used as temporary disposal sites. In addition, SEQSs have become essential to assess sediment quality in public water zones which also came to be necessary. A nationwide freshwater sediment monitoring system had been launched by the Korean Ministry of Environment in June, 2011 (NIER 2011a), and evaluation of the sediment quality from the concentration data, which will be produced by this monitoring was required.
With this research background, this study was conducted to derive SMSs to evaluate the sediment pollution and to winnow the polluted sediment that could have impacts on water quality and aquatic ecosystems. However, we could not derive highly advanced SMSs due to the limitation of ecotoxicological and ecological data for the freshwater sediments in Korea, and we proposed the freshwater SMSs based on the distribution of chemical contaminants in sediments and foreign SQGs. SMSs were already incorporated into the Korean legislation in April 2012 and are officially being used to interpret the data produced by the national sediment quality monitoring systems.
There were different protection goals in derivation of SMSs for different parameter groups in freshwater sediments. For organic matters and nutrients, the SMSs were mainly suggested to protect water quality. On the other hand, for toxicants, the proposed SMSs mainly focused on the effects of the selected contaminants on benthic organisms. Therefore, different approaches were chosen to derive the SMSs of two target groups.
We first tried to adopt foreign SQGs to derive SMSs for nutrients. Almost all of the effect-based, state-of-the-art SQGs did not include organic matters and nutrients for their chemical parameters, but SEL in Ontario provincial sediment quality guidelines (PSQGs) did. We checked the availability of SEL as Korean SMSs for organic matter and nutrient, but those values were not appropriate to protect water quality, which is the main purpose of SMSs for nutrients. Thus, statistical methods were used to derive SMSs for organic matters and nutrients.
As already mentioned, enough reliable data on metal concentrations in freshwater sediments have been collected in Korea. However, taking into account the main objective of SMSs for metals (i.e., protection of benthic organisms) mentioned above, vast amount of data on biological and ecotoxicological effects of contaminated sediments are also required to derive highly advanced SMSs for metals, but those data are not yet available in Korea. In addition, it is hardly likely that more data will be available in the immediate future. For this reason, we utilized overseas SMSs/SQGs which were developed on the basis of biological and ecological effects as has been done in many other countries in the initial stage of SMS/SQG development (Babut et al. 2005).
Candidate parameters and database establishment
Common parameters for organic matters and nutrients in domestic and foreign standards of water and sediments
Korean water environmental quality standards (NIER 2011a)
CODMn, TOC, TN, TP
Dredging standards in the Standard Specifications for River Conservation Works (KICT 2007)
LOI, CODMn, TP, TN
Guidelines for the pollution classification of Great Lakes sediments, USA (USEPA 1977)
Volatile Solids, CODCr, TP, TKN
PSQGs in Ontario, Canada (Persaud et al. 1993)
TOC, TP, TKN
Sediment removal standards in Tokyo Bay, Japan (NIER 2011a)
CODMn, TP, TN
Organic matters and nutrients
Database of organic matters and nutrients in sediments (adapted from (NIER 2011a))
The sediment monitoring data for streams and lakes by National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) were considered as one of the most reliable datasets in Korea (NIER 2011a) since quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) methods used by NIER are highly systematic, and analysis methods are based on the latest techniques and used after performance validation (NIER 2009). The finally selected datasets consisted of sediment analysis results from 343 locations including the streams and lakes in public water zones, urban streams, and agricultural reservoirs (Table 3). Consequently, datasets produced by NIER with the latest analysis methods (e.g., complete combustion methods for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP)) are dominant in stream dataset. Thus, the accuracy and precision of statistics were affected by the periods when the methods were developed and used.
Database descriptions to evaluate the applicability of SMSs for metals (reproduced from NIER 2011a)
Number of sampling locations
(Park et al. 2001a)
Western Nakdong river watershed
Ekman dredge (topsoil)
Acid digestion (HNO3, HClO4, HCl)
(Park et al. 2001b)
Lakes in Keum river basin
Core sampler (topsoil/inner layers)
Acid digestion (HNO3, H2SO4)
(Hong et al. 2005)
High pressure acid digestion (microwave)
Nakdong river branches
Grab sampler (topsoil)
Acid digestion (HNO3, HClO4, HF)
Ponar grab sampler (topsoil)
Nationwide pollution-concerned areas
Grab/Core sampler (topsoil/inner layers)
Acid digestion (HNO3, HCl)
Nationwide streams and lakes
Grab sampler (topsoil)
135 (streams) 83 (Lakes)
Acid digestion (HNO3, HClO4, HF)
AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS
Nakdong river branches
Grab sampler (topsoil)
Acid digestion (HNO3, HClO4, HF)
AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS
Ulsan, Daegu, Pocheon, Ansan, etc.
Grab sampler (topsoil)
Acid digestion (HNO3, HClO4, HF)
AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS
Other results by various jurisdictions on extensive number of samples from pollution-concerned areas also existed. The pretreatment method was regarded as the most important factor to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the analysis on metal concentrations in freshwater sediments (NIER 2011a). Total dissolution methods by strong acids such as HCl, HNO3, HClO4, and HF were selected, but sequential extraction methods were not included.
Particle size distribution and TOC are other imperative factors to explain the contaminant characteristics of sediments (Pelletier et al. 2011; Sakan et al. 2007). However, these two factors could not be considered in evaluating the data reliability because there are no consistent normalization methods for them in Korea yet. Bulk sediment data without particle size fractionation were used in this study. The arithmetic averages of replicates were used in the databases if the samples were collected and analyzed repeatedly at the same locations.
Statistical analysis and comparison with SQGs developed in other countries
As mentioned previously, the main objective of SMSs proposed in this study varies according to target material groups. Thus, different approaches were chosen to derive those SMSs for organic matters and nutrients, and metals.
Organic matters and nutrients
Comparison of 95 percentile values in Korean datasets on freshwater sediments with SQGs in North America
TN ( mg/kg)
95 percentile values
Streams and Lakes
Guidelines for the pollution classification of Great Lakes sediments (Heavily polluted)
PSQGs in Ontario, Canada (SEL)
Two approaches were used after compiling all available information on the freshwater sediment quality: (1) derivation of proper SMS values by percentile approach and (2) correlation between concentrations of contaminants in sediment and overlying water. Results of Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Shapiro–Wilk test indicated that data on loss on ignition (LOI), TN, TP did not follow the normal distribution (data are not shown, and available upon request) (Michelsen 2003). Empirical data on chemical analysis in sediments from a broad spectrum of sites were sorted to identify specific percentiles, and 95 percentile values were used to derive SMSs as obviously and seriously contaminated level. Correlation studies were conducted using sediment datasets over 95 percentile mentioned above and water quality datasets in the database from National Water Quality Monitoring at the same locations of sediment datasets. These correlations were estimated with the parameter concentrations in sediments and in overlying waters at the same locations and times.
Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the relationships of the selected parameter concentrations between overlying water and sediment, and between sediment and sediment. SPSS software (version 18) was used for all statistical analyses. Linear regression equations from those datasets were used to calculate the parameter concentrations in sediments from the parameter concentrations in water defining severely contaminated level (0.5 mg/L for TP, 1.5 mg/L for TN) in Water Quality Standards for Living Environments in Korea.
SMSs for 7 metals and locations with concentrations over SMSs (Reproduced from NIER 2011a)
Locations where the concentrations were over SMSs
Public water body
Pollution risk area
•Ulsan (9.8-fold higher than SMS)
•Ulsan (47-fold higher than SMS)
•Gulpo-cheon, Sihwa Lake (1.8-fold higher than SMS)
•Ulsan (35-fold higher than SMS)
•Ulsan (25.9-fold higher than SMS)
•Ulsan (27-fold higher than SMS)
•Ulsan (20-fold higher than SMS)
Nickel is not included in the chemical parameters of CSL, and we tested the applicability of other foreign SQGs/SMSs. The first candidate was I.V. from the Netherlands. However, like I.V.s for other metals, I.V. for nickel was also expressed for the sediments with 25 % for clay and 10 % for organic matters (LOI), and I.V.s in application areas needed to be converted on the basis of the contents of clay and organic matters in sediments. The clay contents in freshwater sediments in Korea are usually below 10 %, and empirical equations between the contents of clay and organic matters and nickel concentrations for Korean sediments are not available yet. Thus, I.V. for Nickel is not appropriate for the Korean SMS. Next candidate was the Ontario PSQG, 75 mg/kg for Ni. However, this value is less than two folds of the Korean background concentration (39 mg/kg) measured in 2011 (NIER 2011a), and too low to assess whether the high Ni concentration in freshwater sediments was caused by sediment contamination or by high natural background concentration. For this reason, we did not adopt any SMS for Ni in this study. It will be derived after ecotoxicological database for metals is established. Finally, seven metals including Cd, Pb, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, and Zn were selected for SMS derivation in this study.
Results and discussions
SMSs for organic matters and nutrients in freshwater sediments
Derivation of SMSs by statistical approach
The SMSs values for organic matters and nutrients in sediments were proposed based on statistics calculated from sediment chemistry data since 1997. Sediment data were categorized into “stream” only, “lake” only, and “stream and lake.” In this dataset, only TN, TP, and LOI were analyzed. Values derived from the 95 percentile of the contaminant distributions in sediment collected from streams and lakes were 1,552 mg/kg for TP, 5,613 mg/kg for TN, and 13 % for LOI (Table 5). LOI value was directly used for the Korean SMS, and values for TP and TN were rounded up to 1,600 and 5,600 mg/kg respectively, and then used for SMSs.
The SMSs values for TP and TN were higher than the upper limits (1,000 mg/kg for TP, 3,000 mg/kg for TN) of the dredging standards included in the Standard Specifications for River Conservation Works in Korea (KICT 2007) which are not mandatory but can be the basis for dredging in river cleanup works. The SMSs values for nutrients were developed using recent datasets by the latest reliable analysis methods. These concentration values may be consequently higher than the dredging Standards (KICT 2007) based on the traditional wet digestion techniques using acid and oxidizing agents such as potassium persulfate (K2S2O8) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
As an example, NIER (2008) compared TN concentrations analyzed by total persulfate nitrogen (TPN) methods with those measured by elemental analysis in 10 freshwater sediment samples collected from several locations at Han River basin in Korea. TN concentrations by TPN method were only 78 % of those obtained by the elemental analysis (NIER 2008). On the contrary, LOI (13 %) was lower than the upper limit of the dredging standards (20 %). These results suggested that the Korean SMSs for organic matters and nutrients proposed in this study are the most plausible standards based on the latest and most accurate analysis method, discerning obviously and severely polluted sediments.
The SMS values derived in this study were higher than heavily polluted concentrations from the Guidelines for the Pollutional Classification of Great Lakes Harbor Sediments (USEPA 1977)(Table 5). The guidelines for organic matters and nutrients were developed based on the background concentrations of contaminants in sediments at the harbors in the Great Lakes. However, the differences between the Korean SMSs and guidelines for the Great Lakes, USA do not necessarily mean that the SMSs in this study are insensitive to the contaminated sediments. They may be caused by the differences among background concentrations and sediment concentrations in two areas.
The SMSs values were similar to or lower than the SELs from PSQG of Ontario, Canada (Persaud et al. 1993)(2,000 mg/kg for TP, 4,800 mg/kg for TKN; Table 5), which implies that the biological effects of sediment consisting higher parameter concentrations than the Korean SMSs cannot be ignored nor underestimated. The Korean SMSs were based only on the distribution characteristics of parameter concentrations, and there may be difference in biodiversity and sensitivity of the species from the two areas. Their values may be revised after biological and ecotoxicological effects are taken into account in near future.
Correlations between concentrations of contaminants in sediment and overlying water
SQGs from other countries have usually been developed on the basis of biological effects such as biodiversity and ecotoxicity as well as contaminant concentrations. However, biological effects of contaminant in sediments have not yet been reliably monitored and managed by any organizations in Korea. Thus, SMSs for organic matters and nutrients in this study were attempted to be derived from the correlations between the parameter concentrations in sediments and water quality. Even though the correlation was not strong, correlation of concentrations between sediments and overlying water was observed for TP (Cw = 0.0015, Cs = −1.8. R2 = 0.49; Cw = parameter concentrations in water, in milligrams per liter; Cs = parameter concentrations in sediments, in milligrams per kilogram). Based on these correlations, 1,300 mg/kg for TP in sediments was predicted in severely contaminated overlying water (TP, 0.5 mg/L). However, there were weaker correlations in TN, LOI, COD, and TOC concentrations between sediment and water.
The nutrients including phosphorus and nitrogen in sediments are released to overlying waters in anoxic condition. Released nutrients are re-supplied to top layer of sediments, stimulate the growth of phytoplankton, compose new organic materials, and consequently influence overlying water quality (Kim et al. 2005). Thus, relationships between the sediments and water quality need to be investigated using the flux rates of organic matters and nutrients in sediments and their contribution to water quality deterioration and algal growth. SMSs derived in this study were just examined by statistical methods using the correlations between sediment chemistry data and did not consider the interactions between sediments and overlying water. These SMSs can be revised and complemented through various approaches such as flux measurements, water quality impacts, and eutrophication studies in near future.
Derivation of Korean SMSs for metals: adoption of SMSs with foreign SQGs
Comparison of Korean SMSs for metals with SQGs from other countries (in milligrams per kilogram)
CSL WA, USA (Tetra Tech 1986)
I.V. (VW 2007)
Heavily polluted level, EPA region5 (USEPA 1987)
Soil Pollution-concern Standards, area 2, Korea (NIER 2011a)
Background concentrations, Korea
SQGs in North America
Stream Sediments (NIER 2011a)
Soils (NIER 2011a)
PEL, Canada (CCME 1997)
SEL Ontario, Canada (MacDonald et al. 2000)
ERM NOAA, USA (MacDonald et al. 2000)
C-PEC (MacDonald et al. 2000)
(MacDonald et al. 2000)
Compared to those two SQGs on the basis of acid digestion methods such as total dissolution that even uses HF for Washington State similar to the methods used in Korea and aqua regia digestion mainly used in the Netherlands that uses sediment characteristics such as particle size distribution (25 % of clay content for Netherlands) and organic matter content (10 % of LOI for Netherlands, and 0.06 ∼ 4.0 % of TOC for Washington), CSL from Washington State, USA was more applicable than I.V. from the Netherlands (Wesselink et al. 2006) to determine contamination level of the Korean freshwater sediments (5.8 % of clay content; 0.93–1.93 % of TOC). Thus, CSLs for six metals (except Hg) from Washington State (WAC 1999) were adopted to be applied for SMSs in Korea.
In the case of Hg, however, CSL from Washington State (0.59 mg/kg) was too conservative to differentiate “obviously and severely” polluted sediments from normal sediments in light of distribution of mercury concentrations in Korean freshwater sediment and was not appropriate for the Korean SMS. This may indicate that oysters, whose AET was selected as the CSL, were more sensitive to Hg concentrations than other six metals in sediments from Washington. As an alternative, the I.V. for Hg (10 mg/kg) developed in the Netherlands was reviewed for Hg SMS in Korea. Considering the background concentrations in stream sediments (0.065 mg/kg) and soils (0.04 mg/kg) in Korea, this value was too high to detect contaminated sediments effectively. Finally, Severe Effect Level of Ontario PSQG from Canada (2 mg/kg for Hg) was concluded as the most proper Hg SMS values for freshwater sediments in Korea.
These SMSs for metals were tested with the datasets from locations directly affected by highly polluted reference areas including industrial areas (e.g. Ulsan, Daegu, Pocheon, and Ansan), metropolitan areas (e.g., Seoul and Busan), and waste mines (Andong Lake basin) (Table 6). Except for As and Cd in Andong Lake basin, there were almost no locations where the parameter concentrations in sediments exceeded the SMSs in public water zones. On the other hand, in several areas influenced by highly polluted references, concentrations for seven metals including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Hg were found to exceed the SMS values. These results indicate that SMSs for metals derived from this study can differentiate the severely contaminated freshwater sediments in Korea.
SMSs in Korea—organic matter, nutrients, and metals
Organic matter and nutrients
Loss on Ignition (%)
Upper 5 % concentration values measured in Korea
• Pollutant classification method based on concentration distribution was applied
CSLs in Washington State, USA
• Sediment characteristics and analysis methods are similar to those of Korea
SELs in Ontario, Canada
• High concentration values were selected from foreign SQGs related to biological effects
• CSL for Hg in Washington State is too low to be directly applied in Korea
However, there were limitations to these SMSs as they were determined on the basis of chemical characteristics for the selected parameters, and not yet capable of assessing contamination levels, which are higher than the background concentration levels or no effect concentration. Subsequent SMSs reflecting biological and ecotoxicological effects will be derived to manage sediment quality systematically. Studies on the flux rates of organic matters and nutrients in sediments and their contributions to water quality deterioration and algal growth also need to be conducted to build comprehensive frameworks for assessing the contaminated sediments.
This study was supported by the Ministry of Environment and Post Doctoral Course Program of National Institute of Environmental Research, Republic of Korea. We thank Dr. Kenneth M. Y. Leung for his precious advices on making up outlines, and three anonymous reviewers for their invaluable comments to improve the general quality of this manuscript.
- Babut MP, Ahlf W, Batley GE, Camusso M, de Deckere E, den Besten PJ (2005) International overview of sediment quality guidelines and their uses. In: Wenning RJ, Bately GE, Ingersoll CG, Moore DW (eds) Use of sediment quality guidelines and related tools for the assessment of contaminated sediments. The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Press, pp 345–381Google Scholar
- Baek SB (1998) The distribution characteristics of phosphorus and heavy metals in sediments in Junam Reservoir (in Korean). Master’s Thesis, Changwon National University, Korea, 48 ppGoogle Scholar
- CCME (1997) Recommended Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, p 197Google Scholar
- Chung JH (2011) A study on estimation of self-purification and release characteristics from sediment in urban stream (in Korean). Master’s Thesis, Kyung Hee University, Korea, 74 ppGoogle Scholar
- Hong HG, Park JM, Kim DH, Bin LH (2005) Determination of heavy metals in surface sediments of Lake Shihwa (in Korean). The Korea Soc Environ Anal 8:1–5Google Scholar
- KEI (2009) The Pollution level of sediments from 4 major rivers and development of evaluation indicator (in Korean). Annual Report. Korea Environment InstituteGoogle Scholar
- KICT (2007) Standard specifications for river conservation works. Annual Report, Korea Institute of Construction Technology (in Korean), p 370Google Scholar
- Kim B-G, Jung K-W, Kim H-J (2009) A study on the characteristics of sediment in Suyeong River In: Division IWA (Hrsg.). Annual Report, Busan Institute of Health and Environment, pp. 154–167Google Scholar
- Kim CM (1999) Characteristics of organic sediments in some selected river and Stream. Master’s Thesis, Hanyang University, Korea, 52 ppGoogle Scholar
- Kim G, Jeong W, Choi S (2005) Effects of water circulation on the phosphorus release rate from sediments in the Lake. J Korean Soc Water Qual 21:595–601 (in Korean)Google Scholar
- Lyman W, Glazer A, Ong J, Coons S (1987) An overview of sediment quality in the United States: Washington, DC, US Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-905/9-88-002Google Scholar
- Michelsen T (2003) Development of freshwater sediment quality values for use in Washington State. Phase II Report. Development and Recommendation of SQVs for Freshwater Sediments in Washington State. Prepared for Washington State Department of Ecology, Olympia, WAGoogle Scholar
- MLTM (2005) The Establishment of investigation, cleanup, and restoration systems for contaminated marine sediments. Annual Report, Ministry of Land, Transport, and Maritime Affairs (in Korean), 239–288 pGoogle Scholar
- MOE (2006) The development of integrated water environmental evaluation methods (III) (in Korean). Final Report, Sediment Assessment and Evaluation SystemGoogle Scholar
- MOE (2008) A study on the environmental risk assessment for As Cr, Ni, and benzene (in Korean). Annual Report. Ministry of Environment, Republic of KoreaGoogle Scholar
- Neff JM (1986) Sediment quality criteria methodology validation: calculation of screening level concentrations from field data. US Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
- NIER (1997) Inspection for sediments of lakes and streams. In: Department WQR (Hrsg.). Nactong River Water Resource Inspection Center, Keum River Water Resource Inspection Center, Youngsan River Water Resource Inspection Center. Annual Report. National Institute of Environmental Research (In Korean)Google Scholar
- NIER (2006) A study on the development of methods for integrated water environmental evaluation (In Korean). Annual Report, National Institute of Environmental ResearchGoogle Scholar
- NIER (2008) Monitoring of river and lake sediments. In: Research WEE (Hrsg.). National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon, pp. 403Google Scholar
- NIER (2009) Preliminary monitoring of river and lake sediments (II). Annual Report, National Institute of Environmental ResearchGoogle Scholar
- NIER (2011a) Development of freshwater sediment management standards in Korea. Annual Report, National Institute of Environmental Research (In Korean), 322 pGoogle Scholar
- NIER (2011b) The development of freshwater sediment evaluation methods based on the toxic effect on benthic organisms (in Korean). Annual Report. National Institute of Environmental ResearchGoogle Scholar
- NRWMC (2005) The effect of freshwater sediment in Nakdong River and lakes on water bodies (in Korean) Annual Report, Nakdong River Water Management CommitteeGoogle Scholar
- Park HJ, Yoo SJ, Lee BH, Jeong JW, An HG, Park WW (2001a) Pollution characteristics and application of river sediment of the Western Nakdong River (in Korean) Korean. J Environ Health Soc 27:51–55Google Scholar
- Park SK, Kim SS, Ko OS (2001b) Determination of heavy metals for sediment proximated to water in lake (II) (in Korean). J Korean Soc Anal Sci 14:140–146Google Scholar
- Persaud D, Jaagumagi R, Hayton A (1993) Guidelines for the protection and management of aquatic sediment quality in Ontario: Report. Water Resources Branch, Ontario Ministry of the EnvironmentGoogle Scholar
- RRI (2003) A study on the deriving of sediments quality guideline for reservoir dredging and the use of dredged soil (I). (in Korean) Rural Research InstituteGoogle Scholar
- RRI (2011) The analysis of sediment at the project area for short-term water quality improvement (in Korean). Rural Research InstituteGoogle Scholar
- Tetra Tech I (1986) Development of sediment quality values for Puget Sound. Puget Sound Dredged Disposal Analysis Report, pp. 129Google Scholar
- USEPA (1977) Guidelines for the pollutional classification of Great Lakes harbor sediments. USEPA Great Lakes National Program Office. Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (1987) An overview of sediment quality in the United States. In: Office of Water Regulations and Standards WDC, and EPA Region 5 (Hrsg.). US Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (1989) Sediment classification methods compendium. Draft Final Report. Watershed Protection Division, Washington, D.CGoogle Scholar
- VW (2007) Circulaire sanering waterbodems 2008 (Dutch) Staatscourant 18 Dec 2007, nr. 245, pp 35Google Scholar
- WAC (1999) Chapter 173–204 WAC. Sediment Management Standards, 25 ppGoogle Scholar
- Wesselink L, Notenboom J, Tiktak A (2006) The consequences of the European Soil Framework Directive for Dutch policy. MNP report 500094003, 31Google Scholar