Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 843–850 | Cite as

In vitro cytogenetic assessment of trichloroacetic acid in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

  • Meenu Varshney
  • Abhijit Chandra
  • L. K. S. Chauhan
  • S. K. Goel
Research Article


Trichloroacetic acid (TCA), a common water disinfection byproduct and a persistent metabolite of trichloroethylene (TCE), has been examined for its genotoxic potential in human lymphocytes. Chromosomal aberration (CA) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay were employed to assess the toxicity of TCA. Lymphocytes obtained from three healthy donors were exposed to 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml concentration of TCA separately. TCA exposure resulted in chromosomal anomalies and the formation of micronuclei in lymphocytes. Chromosome analysis revealed the dose-dependent and significant induction of CA. Chromatid break/chromosome break, fragments, and chromatid exchanges were commonly observed. Exposure of higher concentration (50 and 100 μg/ml) significantly inhibited mitotic index. Data obtained with CBMN assay indicated that the induction of micronucleus (MN) formation was greater than that of CA. At 25 μg/ml, TCA induced significant frequencies of MN as compared to control cells. Significant induction of MN at the lowest concentration indicates TCA may also interact with mitotic spindles. Lower percentage of CA and MN at 100 μg/ml as compared to 50 μg/ml indicates occurrence of severe cytotoxicity on exposure of 100 μg/ml TCA in lymphocytes. Collectively, results of both cytogenetic assays indicate that exposure of TCA can induce significant genotoxic and cytotoxic effects.


Trichloroacetic acid Human lymphocytes Genotoxicity Cytotoxicity Micronucleus and chromosome aberration 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meenu Varshney
    • 1
  • Abhijit Chandra
    • 2
  • L. K. S. Chauhan
    • 1
  • S. K. Goel
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Petroleum Toxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (IITR)Council of Scientific and Industrial ResearchLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Surgical Gastroenterology DivisionChhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical UniversityLucknowIndia
  3. 3.Department of BiochemistryAll India Institute of Medical ScienceBhopalIndia

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