Determination of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides in surface and treated waters: method development and survey
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Water is fundamental to the existence of life since it is essential to a series of activities, such as agriculture, power generation, and public and industrial supplies. The residual water generated by these activities is released into the environment, reaches the water systems, and becomes a potential risk to nontarget organisms. This paper reports the development and validation of a quantitative method, based on solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous analysis of 18 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and 33 pesticides in surface and drinking waters. The accuracy of the method was determined by calculating the recoveries, which ranged from 70 to 120 % for most pesticides and PPCPs, whereas limits of quantification ranged from 0.8 to 40 ng/L. After the validation step, the method was applied to drinking and surface waters. Pesticides and PPCPs were found in concentrations lower than 135.5 ng/L. The evaluation of different water sources with regard to contamination by pesticides and PPCPs has been quite poor in southern Brazil.
KeywordsPesticides PPCPs LC-MS/MS Environmental waters
The authors acknowledge the financial support and fellowships granted by the Brazilian agencies CAPES, FINEP, CORSAN, and FURG. Part of this study was supported by a grant from the Brazilian Agency FAPERGS/CNPq (process number 010/0022-0), CNPq/CAPES (process number 552318/2011-6), CNPq (process number 477083/2011-00), FAPERGS (process number 11/0816-3), and FAPERGS/PROCOREDES (process number 0905342). E.G. Primel got a productivity research fellowship from the Brazilian Agency CNPq (DT 311605/2009-5).
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